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Posts Tagged ‘imperialism’

1400 years of islamic aggression

Posted by picard578 on July 6, 2019

While modern Marxist Western thought tends to dismiss all non-material motivations for development and war, religion included, looking at the sources it becomes impossible to separate Islam from Arab expansion. Sayyid Qutb, a Muslim polemicist, stated that the mission of Islam is to correct injustices in the world – injustice being whatever is not islamic in nature. Religion is not the only motive for Muslim expansion, but it is the primary one. It is impossible that such conquest could have happened under Christianity, or any other religion. But holy war is a Muslim’s duty, and conversion must happen – by peace or by force. Much like modern-day Marxism/Progressivism, Islam is a “universalizing” ideology, attempting to operate on a global scale, and eventually encompass the whole of humanity – the entre world is divided into Dar al-Islam (House of Islam) and Dar al-Harb (House of War) – if you are not Muslim or under Muslim rule, Islam is automatically at war against you. No permanent peace is possible with non-Muslims, unless latter submit to Muslim rule. Non-muslims are given the options to convert, flee, pay a punishing tax, or die; no peaceful coexistence is possible. Qur’an instructs that the entire world is to be converted. Islam relies heavily – and is built upon – taqqiya, or the duty of deceiving unbelievers for the sake of faith. Lying to believers is despicable; lying to unbelievers is virtuous. It is that way that a “religion of peace” is responsible for majority of terror attacks in the world. While Shi’a communities have – mostly – used it to protect themselves from persecution at the hands of their Sunni rivals, Sunni Muslims had deployed taqqiya as an active deceit, for purpose of aggresion against unbelievers. Today it is also used by Muslims living in countries where Christian infidels are a majority. War is deceit, as many had acknowledged. Difference is that Islam defines Muslims as being always at war against non-Muslims; therefore, Muslims perpetually lie. In Islam, Muslims can only agree to a maximum 10-year truce with infidels; sole function of any truce is to buy time for Muslims to regroup before renewing the offensive. And any oath or treaty can be abriged or nullified if it is advantageous to Islam. In Islam, there is no time of war and time of peace; there is only time of open war and time of war through deceit.

Islamic aggression begins with Muhammad himself. Muhammad fled to Medina after Meccans got fed up with his aggression and usage of his followers to beat up political opponents. At Medina, Muhammad murdered poets who opposed him. Once in power, he attacked Mecca – without any provocation. Between 622. and 630., Muhammad organized 64 raids against Meccan caravans; of these, he personally led 27. Muhammad himself sent a letter to Khaibar Jews, saying that they will be safe if they embrace Islam. Meccans got fed up with Muhammad’s raids, and attacked him in Medina. This led to Battle of Badr in 624.; Meccans were defeated and killed to a man, Muhammad having ordered no prisoners taken. In 625., Quraish – frustrated by continuing Muslim attacks on caravans – reorganized their forces and attacked Medina once again. This time lust for plunder led to defeat of Muhammadian forces, causing Muhammad to institute a death penalty for breaking discipline. The following year Quaraish built an alliance of different Arab tribes to fight the Muslim gangsters in Medina. Muhammad dug a trench around the city at the advice of Salman, who had come to Muhammad to seek help in his revenge on Persians who had banished him. This forced Quaraish to place a siege, which Muhammad used to contact separate members of the alliance and promise them peace if they embraced Islam – but without telling them that withdrawing from Islam meant death. Many accepted, as Quaraish did not make accepting Islam a punishable offence like Muhammad did leaving Islam. Thus, under the pretext of embracing Islam, members of the confederacy withdrew one by one. Once Quraish lifted the siege, Muhammad ordered murder of poets in the city that had mocked him. (A Muslim’s loyalty is only to his co-religionists; this makes islamic democracy an oxymoron, as democracy relies on nationalism and nation-state, whether civic or ethnic).

After victory at the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad turned his attention to the Roman and Persian Empires, whose wealth he desired. He sent out an invitation to the emperors in which he asked them to find refuge in Islam. “Embrace Islam and you will be safe” – an invitation, a threat and an ultimatum rolled into one. Both emperors refused the blackmail, not realizing the kind of threat Islam represented. After the ultimatum was rejected, and the Governor of Syria attacked one of emissaries for insulting Emperor Heraclius, Muhammad declared that it was the duty of Muslims to attack the Roman Empire. In 629 AD, Muslims attacked the Roman Empire, spurred also into action by the fact that Quraish had started to make overtures to the Persians and Romans. An army 3.000 strong marched out under leadership of Muhammad’s personal slave Zaid. Romans massacred the invasion force at Battle of Mu’tah; Zaid was killed, as was Jaffar. The remainder fled. But Romans, despite the victory and overtures by the Quraish, failed to destroy Muhammad and his followers. Hundreds of millions would die because of that mistake.

After losing that battle, Muhammad attacked the Quraish’ Jewish allies, specifically Banu Quraizah tribe. All Quraizah males were killed, while women and children were sold into slavery. In 628 AD Muhammad and thousand followers marched to Mecca by an indirect route, thus avoiding detection. Once there, Quraish and Muslims negotiated a peace treaty. The terms of the treaty included a clause: if any Muslim from the Quraish clan renounced Islam and returned to Mecca, Muhammad would not hold any grudge against him and would not ask for his return. If anyone from the Quraish embraced Islam and went to Medina, Muhammad would immediately return him to the Quraish at Mecca. This allowed Muslim spies to infiltrate Mecca without any problems, while no Quraish spies would infiltrate Medina. Once a large number of Muslims had infiltrated Mecca, in AD 630. Muhammad abrogated the treaty and attacked Mecca. Before that, he made a large number of alliances, prompting the Quraish to do the same in self-defense. After Meccan-allied tribe of Banu Bakr was attacked by Muslim Banu Khuza’ah, it launched a retaliatory strike, which was enough for Muhammad to declare war. He now had enough strength and besieged the city, forcing Meccan leader Abu Sufyan to convert to Islam by holding his daughter captive as part of his harem. After that, Meccans – as blood relatives of Muhammad – achieved preferred status within Islam. This forced conversion created Sunnis, as Meccans unconditionally surrendered. From this event comes name Islam as well (“Al Silm”, surrender). Muhammad demolished all idols in Mecca, and proclaimed that Allah has no form so that Muslims could not be demoralized by enemy destroying image of Allah.

After conquest of Mecca, Muhammad set his sight on the town of Taif, which had earlier rejected Islam. The defenders were outmaneuvered and defeated at the pass of Hunain, after Muslim champion cheated in a duel by striking the camel (rules allowed only the rider, not the camel, to be struck). Demoralized, army of Taif retreated to the fort. Muslims meanwhile destroyed oases around Taif and forcibly converted allies of Taif to Islam, forcing Taif to sue for peace and convert to Islam as well.

Between 630. and Muhammad’s death in 632., Muslims – driven by religion with ingrained lust for booty and slaves – had conquered the bulk of western Arabia and southern Palestine in a series of holy wars. Conquest was put on hold from 632. to 634. as many tribes rebelled, seeing an opportunity after Muhammad’s death, but resumed once rebellion was crushed in 634. Now, this was not the first holy war in history. Khusrou’s invasion of Roman Empire which just preceded islamic expansion was a holy war, and Heraclius’ response had significant elements of holy war as well, and could indeed be called such. In fact, ancient Israelite invasion of Canaan was likely the earliest recorded holy war in history, assuming religious justification was not merely added post factum. Thus, Muslims did not invent the concept of the holy war. They did, however, make it a standard rather than an exception. In Islam, anything done in fight against non-Muslims (or Muslim heretics) is holy. After Muhammad’s death, new Caliph – Abu Bakr – continued Muhammad’s “holy work” and launched Islam into 1400 years of imperialism, colonialism and genocide. A stretch of land invaded by Muslims at one point or another stretches from Western Europe (Spain, France) to Phillipines, from Poland and Ukraine to Nigeria and from central Asia to New Guinea. Out of 28 battles fought by Muhammad, 27 were offensive-aggressive.

The conquest of Arab pennisula was followed by the invasion of Eastern Roman Empire and Persia. Muslims had changed the rules of war: theirs was probably the first religiously-driven conquest in history (previous religious wars ended in status quo being restored). Those conquered by Islam could only avoid slavery by becoming Muslims. In 634. AD, Muslims launched an unprovoked attack on Persia. They started harrassing civilians and attacking border towns. In response, Persians sent a reconnaissance force. Arabs withdrew to desert, giving their camels an advantage over Persian horse cavalry. The reconnaissance force was defeated and withdrew to join up with Persian army at Kasker. Muslims followed him, surprising and defeating the Persian force at Kaskar. Persians consequently withdrew beyond Euphrates. At the Battle of the Bridge, Persians used elephants to defeat Muslim army, but did not pursue Muslims into their own territory, nor slaughter them like Muslims did their enemies, as Persians – like Romans – subscribed to unwritten rules of civilized warfare. Neither exterminated each others’ armies, tormented nor forcibly converted the civilian population.

Roman Empire was attacked at the same time. According to islamic historians, Monophysites and Jews initially welcomed Muslims. But this was not true. Because it was so quick, conquest of Palestine and Egypt is often described as “bloodless” and “peaceful”. While indeed quick – and often helped by local Monophysites who were persecuted by the Orthodox elite in Constantinople – it was far from bloodless. Damascus was conquered in 635. After several defeats – including the Battle of Ajnadyn – Romans attempted to stop the Muslim advance at Battle of Yarmouk in 636. However, Roman multiethnic and multiconfessional force lacked cohesiveness, while Islamic army was fully Arab and Muslim and thus had substantial edge in cohesion and morale. Despite 2:1 numerical disadvantage, Muslims won after three days of battle. After Battle of Yarmouk, Muslims conquered rest of Palestine and started a five-month siege of Jerusalem, which was captured in 638. After Jerusalem was captured there was no slaughter of inhabitants, but non-Muslims were made to pay tribute to colonialist Muslims. City itself was sacked for three days, and over 300 churches and monasteries destroyed. Further wars provided the Muslim Empire with a stream of slaves. The conquest of Christian North Africa went easily enough until Berbers were encountered, bringing the conquests to stop between Tripoli and Carthage for quarter a century. After their resistence was broken, Muslims enacted massacres of Berber populations, ethnically cleansing the coast. While few coastal Berber enclaves remained, most of the populace – then and today – was Arab, and Berbers were pushed into the Sahara desert. Persian Empire was also defeated in 636., in Battle of al-Quadisiyyah. Following this battle, Muslims conquered Iran, with conquest lasting until 650. Jerusalem was conquered in 638.

Jerusalem itself prospered for the next 100 years under Umayyad rulers. However, under Abbasids it began to decline, starting at 725. Causes of decline were numerous – breaking away of provinces, growth of extremist Muslim sects – but the most important was new decision that Muslims had to convert Christians, Jews and other pagans to Islam (note: Muhammad changed his talk about “people of the Book” after they refused to accept his teachings, denouncing them as pagans and heretics; anything good and tolerant he wrote about them is from before that time). Abbasids drained wealth from Jerusalem to Baghdad for the benefit of the caliphs, and just like any colonial possession in such a situation, Jerusalem declined economically. The language of the government became Arabic, and forcible conversion to Islam became the Muslim policy. Christian and Jewish populace of Jerusalem suffered significantly afterwards. Early in eighth century, 60 Christian pilgrims were crucified. In 772, caliph al-Mansur ordered the hands of Christians and Jews in Jerusalem be stamped with a distinctive symbol. People who converted from Islam to Christianity were beheaded, as was the case with Christian monk in 789; at the same time, Betlehem monastery of Saint Theodosius was plundered and many monks massacred. By the ninth century, persecution was so widespread and intensive that many Christians began fleeing to Roman Empire. In 923., a large number of churches was destroyed, and in 937. Palm Sunday rampage, Muslims destroyed Church of Calvary and the Church of Resurrection. Muslims destroyed the countryside of Israel in 970-983 and 1024-1077; Christian churches were wholesale destroyed on several occasions, and in 1020s the Caliph of Cairo completely destroyed Jerusalem. Muslim laws were enforced, mosques built on top of Christian churches and church height was limited. Pilgrims from Europe were attacked and robbed, as were Christian processions. Part of the reason may have been that new Muslims rulers felt more secure after so long stretch of islamic rule, but vast distances of the Empire also led to establishment of independent rulers and instability of Caliphates.

Major problem in Jerusalem was that Christians and their churches were significantly wealthier than the Muslims, since with Charlemagne in early 800s Europe adapted “foreign aid” programme for the churches located at holy places – particularly Jerusalem where Christian churches outshone Muslim rivals. Many were run by religious orders from Rome or Constantinople. Sometimes churches were victims of internal Muslim warfare, especially when Christian and Muslim rulers were in an alliance.

Conquest continued beyond Palestine after 638. Between 638. and 650., Iran was conquered; in same timeframe happened the conquest of Egypt (639-642), Syria and Palestine (638-641) and North Africa (643-707). In 644 Caliph Umar is assassinated, and replaced by Uthman. Uthman, between 644 and 650, conquered Cyprus, Tripoli, Iran, Afghanistan and Sind. In 656. Uthman was assassinated, and succeeded by Ali ibn Abi Talib. Muhammad’s wife Aisha attempted to avenge Uthman’s assassination, rebelling against Ali for not doing so, but was defeated. Ali himself was murdered in 661., and Muawiyyah I. established Umayyad dynasty. Constantinople was beseiged in 673., lasting to 678. In 680., Muhammad’s grandson Hussein and his supporters were massacred in Karbala, Iraq. In 705., Umayyad rule is restored by Abd al-Malik.

Islam was also spreading in the East, and it did not stop at conquering Persia. Muhammed bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Indus valley in 712. Sindh became the easternmost state of the Umayyad Caliphate. In the West, Spain was conquered by Muslims in 711-713, imposing the Kingdom of Andalus. Their advance is only halted by Franks at the Battle of Poitiers in 732. Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba was set up in Spain in 756. In the East Mediterranean, Romans halted their advance in 678. and 717. sieges of Constantinople, and the entire Roman Empire was quickly turned into a militarized garrison state to resist islamic expansion. Constantinople would remain the focal point of Muslim offensives in the West until its fall in 1453. After the defeat in the 717. siege, Caliph Omar projected his wrath on the Christians under his authority, forcing many to convert to Islam and killing those who refused. In 863., victory at Lalakaon marked the end of large-scale raids of Roman territory. But Muslim world was still strenghtened by its wider-ranging access to slave labour in Africa and Asia, while Roman Empire stood essentially alone. Crete became the centre of Mediterranean slave trade, an “honour” which it retained until Roman Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas retook the island in 956.


It was Muslim conquest that brought about the Dark Ages. Up until the 7th century and Islamic invasions, the Roman culture of Antiquity continued to prosper in Spain and France (actually Visigoth and Frankish kingdoms). While Anglo-Saxon barbarians largely erased Roman culture in the Great Britain – only vestiges of it were preserved in Ireland – and Italy regressed into a dark age due to ransacking by Justinian’s armies, Visigoths and Franks both continued a supremely advanced civilizations, their culture being a direct continuation of Roman culture. Visigothic Kingdom maintained aquaducts and bathing houses (latter oftentimes incorrectly attributed to Muslim invaders). They also constructed new buildings, often influenced by the architecture and art of surviving Eastern Roman Empire. Kingdom also produced significant intellectuals such as Isidore of Seville, Eugenius I of Toledo and Theodulf of Orleans. Visigothic nobles were taught writing, reading, medicine, law and philosophy. In France, Merovingian dynasty continued late Roman system of administration. It was Islam’s blockade of Mediterranean that impoverished the cities, led to loss of knowledge and education, and caused many cities to be abandoned and rest significantly reduced. Muslim blockade of trade as well as continual raids and piracy – as commanded by Islam against infidels – had served to transform entire Mediterranean – from Spain and France to remains Roman Empire – into a rural, largely illiterate society. Muslim conquest led to almost complete disappearance of Christian communities in Middle East and Northern Africa. Islam commands a continual war against nonbelievers, and in that spirit Muslims mounted constant raids against southern shores of Europe, taking plunder and slaves. Many ports on the northern shores of Mediterranean became desolute, large areas of coast becoming completely uninhabited. Those who did remain adopted a culture in which paranoid suspicion of outside world, violence and vendetta were endemic.

Despite popular misconception, Roman Empire itself did not fare any better than Western Europe. Its long tradition allowed it to maintain basics of an organized state, without slipping into feudalism, but even those were shadows of what the Empire had been before the invasion. The entire Roman Empire had been turned into a garrison state. Loss of supply of papyrus from Egypt had devastated Roman learned class, and between the loss of administration and constant attacks, many cities were abandoned. Same poverty that ruled in the West was also in evidence in Rome. Bronze coinage – the proof positive of developed commerce – disappeared in seventh century, and did not reappear in quantity until late tenth century. In Rome as in West after Muslim attacks, one finds barter economy, and largely illiterate populace. As As al-Mundhir described it, “Rich cities are few in their kingdom and country, despite its situation, size, and the antiquity of their rule. This is because most of it consists of mountains, castles, fortresses, cave dwellings and villages dug out of the rock or buried under the earth.”.

But that culture was also terminated in Egypt and Syria due to new faith’s utter contempt for it. Caliphal government in Egypt immediately established a commission whose purpose was to seek out and plunder pharaohnic age tombs. A century after Muslim conquest, nobody knew who had built the Great Pyramid. Immediately prior to Muslim invasion, libraries and academies of Egypt, Syria and Babylonia were packed with works of classical authors. Yet these works and most of their knowledge disappear immediately after Muslim conquests. Islam had destroyed the Classical civilization.


In Spain, Muslims were initially tolerant of Christianity. This changed as their rule solidified. In 9th century Cordoba, a group of Christians initiated a nonviolent campaign as a response to outrageous human rights violations by Muslims. They were all slaughtered. St. Eulogious was likewise killed by Muslims for defending the martyrs. However, despite wide-scale conversion efforts via violence and jizya, only very poor were swayed – by an effective argument of children being sold into sexual slavery if the tax wasn’t paid, a tax they couldn’t afford. Nonviolent resistance by Spanish was met by Muslim reprisals, such as mentioned pogrom. In 853 a nonviolent resistance in Cordoba was supplemented by violent uprising in Toledo. Emir initially threatened to massacre all Christian men and sell Christian women into prostitution. He eventually backed down from the threat, but he still purged all Christians from the government, destroyed churches, monasteries and schools, and launched a massive campaign of forced conversions.

The intention of taking the jizya is not to approve the disbelief of non-Moslems in Islam, but rather to spare their lives and to give them some time; in hope that during it; they might stop to reflect on the virtues of Islam and its compelling arguments and consequently converting from disbelief to belief. That’s why it’s important to pay the jizya with humiliation and servility, because naturally, any sensible person cannot stand humiliation and servility. So if the disbeliever is given some time watching the pride of Islam and hearing evidences of its authenticity, then apparently this might carry him to convert to Islam and that’s the main rationale behind the enactment of the jizya. (Tafsir al-Kabir. Koran 9:29)

Later during 10th century, Christians were being executed in Andalusia for refusing to convert to Islam. In 1013., Jews were expelled from Cordova by the Umayyad Caliphate.


In 807., Caliph Harun al-Rashid ordered the destruction of non-Muslim prayer houses and the Church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem. In 809., Sardinia was conquered by Aghlabids. In 813., Christians in Palestine were attacked, and many fled the country. In 831., Muslim jihadis captured Palermo in Italy. In 850., Caliph al-Matawakkil orders the destruction of non-Muslim houses of prayer. Between 837. and 901., Aghlabids conquer Sicily and raid Corsica, Italy and France.

In 855., Christians of Syria revolted. This revolt was followed in 869. by revolt of black slaves in Iraq, which was crushed in 883.

In 903., the Arabs sacked the second-largest city of Roman Empire, Thessalonica, enslaving 30 000 Christians. In 909., Fatimid Caliphate rises in Tunisia, and conquers Sicily and Sardinia. Roman Empire experiences military revival in 928.-969., retaking old territories such as Cyprus and Tarsus. Even so, in 931. Muslim raiding parties reached as deep as Ankuriya (Ankara) and took thousands of Christians captive. Ribats, quasi-monastic establishments – part monasteries, part fortresses – flourished as basis from which Ghazis joined the raids against Christian “polytheists”. Muslims burn down the Church of the Resurrection (The Church of the Holy Sceptre) in Jerusalem in 937., and more churches are attacked. In 966., Quarakhanid Turks convert to Islam.

An entire corpus of Muslim writers preached committment to jihad so as to stop Christian counterattacks. Ibn Nubata used rhetoric not dissimilar to that of Pope Urban, over a century later: “Do you think that He will forsake you whilst you are assisting Him, or do you imagine that He will desert you whilst you are steadfast in His path? Certainly not! . . . So put on — may God have mercy on you — for the Jihad the coat of mail of the faithful and equip yourselves with the armor of those who trust [in God].”

In 966., anti-Christian riots happen in Jerusalem. In 969. Fatimids conquer Egypt, while in 970. Seljuks enter Islamic territories from the East. By 972., Fatamids had conquered North Africa. In 973., Israel and southern Syria are again conquered by Fatimids. In 1003., al-Hakim begins his persecutions of Christians, destroying the Church of st. Mark in Fustat, Egypt. In 1009., Church of Resurrection is again destroyed by al-Hakim, and he in 1012. declares oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians, including destruction of all churches and temples. Umayyad Calphate collapses in 1031., and reconstruction of the Church of Resurrection is completed in 1048.


Between 1001. and 1026., islamic prince Mahmud of Ghazni launched a series of 17 campaigns into Northern India. By 1020s, his empire included Indus Valley, Afghanistan and Persia, echoing Muhammed bin Quasim who created an islamic empire in roughly the same area in 710s.


The Crusades, so reviled by the Left, were late and anemic effort at defense against islamic aggression. They were an imitation of jihad, spurred by fear and necessity of a losing war. Neither were they without immediate provocation, launched only once Muhammedians had settled in their newly conquered lands. First call for a Crusade was made in 846 AD, when an Arab expedition to Sicily sailed up the Tiber and sacked Rome. By 11th century, islamic jihad had succeeded in conquering more than half of what used to be Christian land – Christian communities in North Africa, Middle East and Western Asia had been subjugated by that time. The expansion was finally stopped after the Battle of Politiers and failed attempts at conquering Constantinople. But this did not mean the end of the threat. In the West, Abd-el Rahman III and Al-Mansur advanced through northern Spain in the latter years of the tenth century, and raids into southern France continued well into eleventh century. Leon, Barcelona and Santiago de Compostela were burned by Al-Mansur. It was these actions which initiated Reconquista, a Christian response to renewed threat of Islam in the West. Mediterranean was again a battlefield as Christians fought to hold back the renewed offensive by Islam. In the East, the Roman Empire was still at disadvantage against jihadis. While there was a revival of the Empire under Macedonian dynasty, it did not survive Basil II’s death. Seljuk raids into Anatolia began in 1020s, devastating Armenia. In the twenty years immediately preceeding the First Crusade, the Empire had lost nearly whole of Anatolia – an area larger than France, and on doorstep of Europe. In 1050. Seljuk leader Togrul Beg killed at least 130.000 Christians in a Holy War. In 1055., Seljuk Prince Tughrul entered Baghdad; in the same year, Seljuks confiscated the property of the Church of Resurrection. In 1064. an old Armenian capital of Ani was destroyed by Alp Arslan, who had unified Seljuks in 1063. and quickly gained charming nickname of “a drinker of blood” through his cruelty. Over 30 000 people were enslaved, and the equal number massacred, so that – in words of Armenian historian Matthew of Edessa – it was impossible to find a street not covered by corpses. Upon hearing the news, Caliph of Baghdad issued a rescript praising and blessing Alp Arslan. From 1065. onwards Edessa was assaulted yearly, in 1066. Seljuks occupied the pass of Amanus Mountains, and in spring of 1067. Cappadocian metropolis of Caesarea was sacked. That winter Roman armies were defeated at Melitene and Sebastea, which sealed Seljuk control of Armenia. Raids penetrated to Neoceasarea and Amorioum in 1068., Iconium in 1069. and Chonae near Aegean coast in 1070.

By 1070., Seljuks were in control of all of Armenia and were threatening the conquest of Anatolia, which had been stripped of its thematic forces following the ascension of incompetent Constantine VIII to the throne. Emperor Romanos Diogenes attempted to liberate Armenia, but was defeated at Manzikert in 1071. and taken prisoner. Alp Arslan was killed a year later, and his son Malek Shah completed the conquest of Asia Minor, up to the western shores – aided by Roman civil war in which various pretenders tried to take the throne. Continual raids allowed Seljuks to expel, enslave or impoverish region’s Christian inhabitants. A fortress of Nicaea, just across Constantinople, was taken by the Seljuks in 1075. In mere 20 years, Roman Empire – the preeminent Christian state of the era – had lost an area larger than France. Anatolia, one of earliest hotbeds of Christianity, fell under Muslim rule – once thriving region having been reduced to a wasteland and pastureland for still-nomadic Turks. After these defeats, Romans appealed to Pope for help.

It is this renewal of islamic expansion that brought about the Crusades. As noted, after loss of Anatolia – the traditional recruiting ground of the Empire – Emperor Alexius Comnenus made a call for help. While Romans had hoped for mercenaries to help them liberate Anatolia, Pope saw an opportunity to unite Christians and stop them from fighting each other instead of a far more dangerous enemy. As such, he made a call for uniting Christians in defense against Muslim aggression. This was successful in part, and the spirit of the Crusades enabled Europe to survive by uniting it in crucial battles of Lepanto and Vienna. Crusades themselves were also partly successful. It should also be noted that, with few one-off exceptions (Constantine, Heraclius), Christianity did not have a concept of holy war as a doctrine until first contacts with Islam.

All and all, it makes as much sense claiming that Crusades were aggressors as it does to claim Allied soldiers who went to France in 1944. were, or that Allied war effort as such was evil because Dresden, Tokyo and other cities with no military targets in them were destroyed in obvious campaign of terror bombing (i.e. war crime). Compared to Jihad, or to wars started by atheists in 18th century and later, Crusades were measured, moral, rational and reasonable answer to Islamic invasion and colonization. Crusades were indeed not clean. Crusader conquest of Jerusalem was a barbaric thing – but while the West and Westerners have apologized for Crusades (and many are taking pilgrimages even today as symbol of penance), no such apology ever came from Muslim side for jihad, nor for Muslim imperialism, geographically largest in the world’s history. By the time Crusades had started in AD 1099, Muslim armies had conquered, slaughtered, enslaved, raped and tortured their way through nearly two-thirds of the Christian world. Christians were forced to pay the exertionist tax, forced to convert to the peaceful genocidal religion, summarily executed for no other fault than being Christian. In 11th century, Christians living in the Fatamid Caliphate were subject to persecution during the reign of al-Hakim, who ordered them to wear identifying black turbans and a large cross in public, as well as ordering the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. When Seljuks conquered Middle East, one of their goals was greater persecution of Christians. Pilgrims were subject to harrassment and violence – in 1065., a group of 12.000 German pilgrims led by Bishop Gunther of Bamberg in 1065. was massacred by the Seljuks on Good Friday. Pilgrims were attacked first by emir of Tripoli but were saved by a storm, and were attacked on Good Friday by Bedouins.

Toledo was liberated by Christians in 1085., but in 1086. Almoravids sent help to Kingdom of Andalus. By 1091., Muslims had occupied all of Andalus except for Saragossa and Balearic Islands, sending refugees fleeing all over France. In 1094., the ambassadors of the Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus appeared before the Pope Urban II. at the Council of Piacenza to request help against Muslim Seljuk Turks. While the Emperor had hoped merely for mercenaries, Pope had seen an opportunity to unite Western Europe for a useful purpose, and declared a Crusade to liberate Christ’s grave in 1095.


Crusades had little impact on Muslim anti-Christian sentiments. Muslims themselves remained as ignorant of the Christian world after the Crusades as they were before them. They knew next to nothing of Europe’s geography and culture; it held no interest to Muslims beyond being a frontier area against which they waged war. Both Muslim attacks and Christian counterattacks degenerated into extremely dirty wars. They also helped establish popular anti-Semitism as well as slave trade within Western Christianity.

Muslim aggression continued during and after the Crusades. (…)


Spanish Inquisition was not a reflection of Christian barbarism, but rather a desperate measure of a Christian society forced to defend itself against hundreds of thousands of Muslims who had claimed to have converted to Christianity, but were practicing taqiyya and living as moles trying to subvert the Christian nation back to Islam.


On May 29, 1453. Muslims conquered Constantinople, a city that had by that time thrived for over a thousand yeary (330. – 1453.), and a then-center of two thousand years old Roman civilization. Many civilians were massacred, raped or taken into captivity, and city itself pillaged. Around 30 000 civilians were enslaved or forcibly deported, out of pre-siege population of no more than 50 000. People who had taken shelter within Hagia Sophia – those unable to assist in defence of the city – were divided among captors, and those not enslaved were slaughtered. Sultan Mahmud, wanting to preserve his future capital, was forced to order a stop to the pillage on the first day, contrary to contemporary laws of war which allowed three days for pillage of a captured city.

With fall of the Constantinople, four out of five centres of Christianity – Constantinople, Alexandria, Jerusalem and Antiochia – were conquered, leaving only Rome free.


Conquest of Constantinople and Middle Asia led to Europeans seeking other routes to China. Made more aggressive and expansive by its struggle with Islam, Christian Europe colonized the Western Hemisphere and sidestepped Dar al-Islam as middleman in trade with Asia. But this also led to Reformation and the rise of secularization. But Columbus’ trip – which had jumped off European colonization – was not only about seeking trade routes to China. Military alliance against Islam was also sought. And extreme cruelty that Spaniards displayed in the New World were merely habits gained through long association with Islam. This includes the parasitic habits and nature of the Arabs and nomad Africans, which caused Spaniards to merely plunder gold from the New World, instead of – as English and French did – establishing trade colonies. Spanish habits in the New World – putting villages to fire and sword, razing crops, devastating whole districts to bring the enemy to terms, enslaving people – were nothing more than what they themselves had been subjected to at the hands of Muslims.


Wherever it establishes itself, Islam destroys or defaces monuments that represented the previous, destroyed culture and replaces them with its own – Afghanistan used to be Buddhist, Anatolia Christian, Pakistan Hindu, but there are no intact monuments remaining from these cultures. The same thing happened in Egypt. The Great Pyramid of Giza used to be covered by a smooth, beautifully polished layer of white stone. This limestone was similar to marble but superior in hardness and durability. The 144.000 casting stones were so brilliant they could be seen from the mountains of Israel, hundreds of miles away. But when an earthquake in 13th century loosened some of the casting stones, Arabs saw their opportunity. Limestone layer was removed and stone used for mosques and palaces.


In conquered areas, non-Muslims were segregated and discriminated against. Islamic law was introduced as senior law and Arabic language as official language, and local language frequently disappeared. Society was divided into two basic classes – islamic conquerors who did not pay taxes, and conquered natives who had to pay heavy tax. There are many examples of discriminatory legal practices: in various cases, Christians and Jews were forbidden from bearing arms, riding horses, building new houses and proselytizing. They had to bow to their Muslim masters when paying taxes and to live under Koranic law. Eventually, even non-Arab Muslim inhabitants became a second class – still above non-Muslims, but below Arab masters, in a classic colonialist practice. Over time, various practices led to disappearance of once-thriving Christian communities in North Africa, Middle East and Western Asia. Muslims also captured and/or imported a mass of black slaves, centuries before the European transatlantic slave trade; but these were all castrated, which is why there are no or very few black people in Arab countries today. Intermittent tolerance of other “peoples of the Book” was tolerance of the victors. It always disappeared as soon as the tide turned against Islam. The pressures of jihad led to forced conversions, pogroms and other brutalities.


The expenses of defending Europe forced the Church to raise money in various ways. This included selling the indulgences, which naturally was exploited by the less ethical members of the clergy. Various popes opposed it on ideological basis, and attempts were made to rein it in (such as in 1392. by Pope Boniface IX), but practicality precluded cessation of practice and it was only Martin Luther – a monk without understanding of greater picture – that decisively opposed it by publishing 95 Theses. This caused a religious schism in the West, and led to the Thirty Years War, one of the most lethal wars in European history. This will not be the last intra-Christian war that the expansion of Islam will ultimately cause.


Muslims had beseiged Vienna in 1529. and 1683. In 1627., Iceland was raided by Muslim corsairs, seizing four hundred captives and selling them in slave markets of Algeirs.


Russian invasion of Crimea under Catherine the Great was a response to centuries of slave raids by the Crimean Khanate, the “white harvest” so common on borders of islamic states wherein Muslims would capture and enslave Christians, especially children. Blond women and boys fetched a premium at the slave markets in the Ottoman Empire. Raids were no less cruel than later Western slaver raids in Africa, but are completely unknown to average college SWJ.


Creation of United States Marine Corps was a response to islamic aggression. Now, USMC are not the first such organization in the US history – that would be the Continental Marines of the US War for Independence. But Continental Marines were disbanded following the end of the war. United States Marine Corps were established 20 years later to counter islamic piracy. The Barbary Coast pirates were following in Muhammad’s footsteps, raiding oceangoing ships, taking slaves, capturing people for ransom and demanding “protection money” from any kafirs that didn’t want to be raided.

Many European countries, as well as United States initially, did the easy thing and paid the protection money. This, however, meant that piracy flourished, as money was used to fund operations against anyone who wasn’t paying. During Jefferson’s time as ambassador to France, he met with an ambassador from Tripoli and asked why Tripoli was doing this; the answer he was given was that it was written in Koran, and that it was Muslim’s “right and duty to make war upon them [non-Muslims] wherever they could be found, and to enslave as many as they could take as prisoners”. Jefferson read the Koran, formed the United States Navy, created the Marine Corps, and sent them to the shores of Tripoli. This was the beginning of the end of the Barbary Coast pirates.


In 1830., Greece regained independence from the Ottomans.


Even in 20th century, islamic imperialism has continued unabated. Ottoman Empire expelled approximately 1.500.000 Greeks from its land and replaced them with Turks. While a logical and reasonable thing to do – Greeks also expelled Turks from Greece, and in the long run it prevented internal conflicts and possible civil war – today it would be called “ethnic cleansing”. What cannot be excused in any possible way is Turkish massacre of 2.000.000 Armenian Christians – which was religiously, not ethnically motivated act. Turkey also occupied and ethnically cleansed northern Cyprus, an act of aggression which cannot be justified by any means. Muslim Northern Sudan enslaved Christian and pagan southern Sudan. Muslim Indonesia likewise occupied non-islamic western New Guinea, East Timor and Celebes, and immediately conducted a campaign of destroying any non-islamic religions. Muslim Iraq has fought wars with surrounding Muslim states for the lack of Christian enemies at hand; Muslim Albania is busy trying to enlarge borders at Macedonia’s expense while Muslim North Nigeria is busy being an aggressor against Christian south. Yet no Muslim country ever sent troops anywhere to protect Christians from persecution, while Christian nations did protect Muslims from persecution (e.g. Bosnia).


From 1902. to 1913., United States fought against Islamic “Moro Warriors” in the Phillippines. These warriors were extremely hard to stop due to a combination of rope armour, drugs and religious insanity. In one instance, a Moro warrior fought on after receiving 14 bullet wounds in five minutes – one of which was to the brain. As a result of these wars, US military introduced high-calibre M1911 pistol.


In Nigeria today, Muslim terror is not limited to classical terror groups such as Boko Haram. While it looks like a problem between herdsmen and farmers, most of herdsmen are Muslims from the north who are taking over the land, coming to settle in the south in order to populate area with Muslims. Herdsmen are being financed from the outside, and have access to sophisticated weaponry. In Thailand, Muslims have embarked on a campaign of violent religious cleansing and genocide against Buddhists despite making up only 4% of the populace. This is not a new phenomenon: modern-day “Arab world”, with sole exception of Arabia itself, was never Arab until Muslims came. But Muslims exterminated native populace. European Union has admitted that islamic terrorism had cost the economy hundreds of billions of Euros. In fact, increased cost of terrorism is directly linked with Muslim immigration. Europol has warned that “Migration flows are relevant to the terrorist threat, with irregular migrant flows having been ‘exploited in order to dispatch terrorist operatives clandestinely to Europe.'”.


Pathos of contemporary Islam is fuelled not by Western imperialism – which was fuelled first by need for defense against Islam, and today by Marxist globalism – but rather by memory of how Islam’s final victory over Christianity for so long remained a real possibility. Further, most of today’s islamic terrorism is home-grown: rather than being more integrated, second-generation Muslim immigrants are far less integrated into their countries than first-generation immigrants.

In Muslim countries, Western analysts have predicted that the Arab Spring will lead to democratization and moderation. Democratization, in a sense, may have happened – but moderation did not. Instead, what happened was the spread of traditional (so-called “extremist”) Islam, leading to unprecendented jihadist mobilization.

In Western societies, Muslim aggression is a function of percentage of population. While this does vary from society to society, below 2% Muslims are well-behaved members of the society. Between 2 and 3 per cent, prosyletization behins among criminals and similar groups. From 5% on, Muslims begin forcing host society to adapt to their demands – such as so-called “halal” food. When they reach 10%, lawlessness and outright terrorism are used as a means of pressure against the host society. Anything that offends Islam results in uprising and threats. After reaching 20% of population, Muslims engage in hair-trigger rioting, Jihadi militia formations, murders and church and synagogue burnings. These are not hard rules, however – France has little less than 10% Muslims, yet it is already experiencing symptoms listed as appearing with 20% of populace. Reason is that behaviour is also determined by the nature of host society. Western European societies and people in them have been conditioned into spineless cowards by decades of liberalism and progressivism. In a free and tolerant society, Muslims will not feel fear, and will start misbehaving much sooner. On the other hand, in a strongly anti-Muslim, self-conscious nation such as China, percentage will have to be much greater before they start misbehaving.

Muslims are regularly ones to initiate hostilities, and when their victims resist, Muslims and their progressive apologists immediately shift the blame to them (as they do with Crusades). Al Jazeera blamed Buddhists for defending themselves from Muslim aggression. And because West refuses to see the danger, Muslim immigrants flooding the West will easily demographically and culturally overwhelm host societies, achieving peacefully what they failed to achieve by sword centuries ago. Muslim “enclaves” or “ghettoes” in Western societies are not a consequence of Western intolerance – they are ribat, frontier posts where war is waged against infidels, one way or another.

Aggression itself is not merely ideological, but biological-psychological as well. Somewhere around 70% of Pakistanis, 25 – 30% of Turks, and 50% of Arabs are inbred. Consequences of inbreeding are lower levels of IQ and higher levels of aggression. At least 55% of Pakistani population in UK is married to a first cousin. As a result, a British Pakistani family is at least 13 times more likely than the general population to have children with recessive genetic disorders. While UK Pakistanis account for 3,4% of all births in Britain, they account for 30% of all British children with disorders that are a result of inbreeding. Overall, around half of Muslims in the world are inbred; so if world becomes Muslim, it will also become mentally retarded, as well as locked in permanent rage. Western airplane instructors have found that Saudis have very limited night vision, as well as dim memories, and have to be constantly reminded the things they had been told days before. Inbreeding has done irreversible damage to Muslim gene pool in terms of sanity, intelligence and health. Inbred babies are 400% more likely to have IQ lower than 70 – which is mental retardation limit (this effect is well known in European royal families, such as Hapsburgs and British royal family, which had been inbreeding for centuries). In Denmark, non-Western immigrants are more than 300 percent more likely to fail the intelligence test required for entrance into the Danish army. Arab world as a whole translates only 330 books per year, 20% of what Greece alone does. In 1200 years of Islam, only 100 000 books had been translated into Arabic – less than Spain translates in a year. Seven out of 10 Turks have never read a book. Only four Muslims had ever won a proper Nobel Prize – additional five had won Nobel Peace Prize. In Denmark, between 51% and 70% of children with special needs have immigrant background, and 64% of schoolchildren with Arabic parents are still illiterate after 10 years in the Danish school system. More than 40% of patients in Denmark’s biggest ward for clinically insane criminals have an immigrant background.

Vuk dlaku mijenja, ali ćud nikada.



A list of major Muslim invasions:


Muhammad conquers Mecca from his base in Medina.


Muhammad dies in Medina. Islam controls the Hijaz.


Muslims conquest of Syria, and the surrounding lands, all Christian – including Palestine and Iraq.


Muslim Crusaders conquer Iraq (some date it in 635 or 636).


Muslim Crusaders conquer and annex Jerusalem, taking it from the Byzantines.

638 – 650

Muslim Crusaders conquer Iran, except along Caspian Sea.

639 – 642

Muslim Crusaders conquer Egypt.


Muslim Crusaders control Syria and Palestine.

643 – 707

Muslim Crusaders conquer North Africa.

644 – 650

Muslim Crusaders conquer Cyprus, Tripoli in North Africa, and establish Islamic rule in Iran, Afghanistan, and Sind.

673 – 678

Arabs besiege Constantinople, capital of Byzantine Empire.


Dome of the Rock is completed in Jerusalem, only six decades after Muhammad’s death.

710 – 713

Muslim Crusaders conquer the lower Indus Valley.

711 – 713

Muslim Crusaders conquer Spain and impose the kingdom of Andalus. The Muslim conquest moves into Europe.


Conquest of Spain complete.


Muslim invasion of France is stopped at the Battle of Poitiers / Battle of Tours. The Franks, under their leader Charles Martel (the grandfather of Charlemagne), defeat the Muslims and turn them back out of France.


Foundation of Baghdad.


Foundation of the Great Mosque of Cordova.


Rise of Idrisid amirs (Muslim Crusaders) in Morocco; Christoforos, a Muslim who converted to Christianity, is executed.


Autonomous Aghlabid dynasty (Muslim Crusaders) in Tunisia


Caliph Harun al—Rashid orders the destruction of non-Muslim prayer houses & of the church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem.


Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sardinia, Italy.


Christians in Palestine are attacked; many flee the country.


Muslim Crusaders capture Palermo, Italy; raids in Southern Italy.

837 – 901

Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sicily, raid Corsica, Italy, France.

869 – 883

Revolt of black slaves in Iraq.


Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate in Tunisia; these Muslim Crusaders occupy Sicily, Sardinia.

928 – 969

Byzantine military revival, they retake old territories, such as Cyprus (964) and Tarsus (969).


The Church of the Resurrection (aka Church of Holy Sepulcher) is burned down by Muslims; more churches in Jerusalem are attacked.


Conversion of Qarakhanid Turks to Islam.


Fatimids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Egypt and found Cairo.


Israel and southern Syria are again conquered by the Fatimids.


First persecutions by al—Hakim; the Church of St. Mark in Fustat, Egypt, is destroyed.


Destruction of the Church of the Resurrection by al—Hakim (see 937).


Beginning of al—Hakim’s oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians.


Creation of Almoravid (Muslim Crusaders) movement in Mauretania; Almoravids (aka Murabitun) are coalition of western Saharan Berbers; followers of Islam, focusing on the Quran, the hadith, and Maliki law.


Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk Turks (Muslim Crusaders) defeat Byzantines and occupy much of Anatolia.


Turks (Muslim Crusaders) invade Palestine.


Conquest of Jerusalem by Turks (Muslim Crusaders).


Seljuks (Muslim Crusaders) capture Nicea (Iznik) and make it their capital in Anatolia.


Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) conquer western Ghana.


Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) send help to Andalus, Battle of Zallaca.

1090 – 1091

Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) occupy all of Andalus except Saragossa and Balearic Islands.

630 Two years before Muhammad’s death of a fever, he launches the Tabuk Crusades, in which he led 30,000 jihadists against the Byzantine Christians. He had heard a report that a huge army had amassed to attack Arabia, but the report turned out to be a false rumor. The Byzantine army never materialized. He turned around and went home, but not before extracting “agreements” from northern tribes. They could enjoy the “privilege” of living under Islamic “protection” (read: not be attacked by Islam), if they paid a tax.

This tax sets the stage for Muhammad’s and the later Caliphs’ policies. If the attacked city or region did not want to convert to Islam, then they paid a jizya tax. If they converted, then they paid a zakat tax. Either way, money flowed back to the Islamic treasury in Arabia or to the local Muslim governor.

632-634 Under the Caliphate of Abu Bakr the Muslim Crusaders reconquer and sometimes conquer for the first time the polytheists of Arabia. These Arab polytheists had to convert to Islam or die. They did not have the choice of remaining in their faith and paying a tax. Islam does not allow for religious freedom.

633 The Muslim Crusaders, led by Khalid al-Walid, a superior but bloodthirsty military commander, whom Muhammad nicknamed the Sword of Allah for his ferocity in battle (Tabari, 8:158 / 1616-17), conquer the city of Ullays along the Euphrates River (in today’s Iraq). Khalid captures and beheads so many that a nearby canal, into which the blood flowed, was called Blood Canal (Tabari 11:24 / 2034-35).

634 At the Battle of Yarmuk in Syria the Muslim Crusaders defeat the Byzantines. Today Osama bin Laden draws inspiration from the defeat, and especially from an anecdote about Khalid al-Walid. In Khalid’s day an unnamed Muslim remarks: “The Romans are so numerous and the Muslims so few.” To this Khalid retorts: “How few are the Romans, and how many the Muslims! Armies become numerous only with victory and few only with defeat, not by the number of men. By God, I would love it . . . if the enemy were twice as many” (Tabari, 11:94 / 2095). Osama bin Laden quotes Khalid and says that his fighters love death more than we in the West love life. This philosophy of death probably comes from a verse like Sura 2:96. Muhammad assesses the Jews: “[Prophet], you are sure to find them [the Jews] clinging to life more eagerly than any other people, even polytheists” (MAS Abdel Haleem, The Qur’an, Oxford UP, 2004; first insertion in brackets is Haleem’s; the second mine).

634-644 The Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab, who is regarded as particularly brutal.

635 Muslim Crusaders besiege and conquer of Damascus.

636 Muslim Crusaders defeat Byzantines decisively at Battle of Yarmuk.

637 Muslim Crusaders conquer Iraq at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah (some date it in 635 or 636).

638 Muslim Crusaders conquer and annex Jerusalem, taking it from the Byzantines.

638-650 Muslim Crusaders conquer Iran, except along Caspian Sea.

639-642 Muslim Crusaders conquer Egypt.

641 Muslim Crusaders control Syria and Palestine.

643-707 Muslim Crusaders conquer North Africa.

644 Caliph Umar is assassinated by a Persian prisoner of war; Uthman ibn Affan is elected third Caliph, who is regarded by many Muslims as gentler than Umar.

644-650 Muslim Crusaders conquer Cyprus, Tripoli in North Africa, and establish Islamic rule in Iran, Afghanistan, and Sind.

656 Caliph Uthman is assassinated by disgruntled Muslim soldiers; Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law and cousin to Muhammad, who married the prophet’s daughter Fatima through his first wife Khadija, is set up as Caliph.

656 Battle of the Camel, in which Aisha, Muhammad’s wife, leads a rebellion against Ali for not avenging Uthman’s assassination. Ali’s partisans win.

657 Battle of Siffin between Ali and Muslim governor of Jerusalem, arbitration goes against Ali

661 Murder of Ali by an extremist; Ali’s supporters acclaim his son Hasan as next Caliph, but he comes to an agreement with Muawiyyah I and retires to Medina.

661-680 the Caliphate of Muawiyyah I. He founds Umayyid dynasty and moves capital from Medina to Damascus

673-678 Arabs besiege Constantinople, capital of Byzantine Empire

680 Massacre of Hussein (Muhammad’s grandson), his family, and his supporters in Karbala, Iraq.

691 Dome of the Rock is completed in Jerusalem, only six decades after Muhammad’s death.

705 Abd al-Malik restores Umayyad rule.

710-713 Muslim Crusaders conquer the lower Indus Valley.

711-713 Muslim Crusaders conquer Spain and impose the kingdom of Andalus. This article recounts how Muslims today still grieve over their expulsion 700 years later. They seem to believe that the land belonged to them in the first place.

719 Cordova, Spain, becomes seat of Arab governorship.

732 The Muslim Crusaders are stopped at the Battle of Poitiers; that is, Franks (France) halt Arab advance.

749 The Abbasids conquer Kufah and overthrow Umayyids.

756 Foundation of Umayyid emirate in Cordova, Spain, setting up an independent kingdom from Abbasids.

762 Foundation of Baghdad

785 Foundation of the Great Mosque of Cordova

789 Rise of Idrisid emirs (Muslim Crusaders) in Morocco; foundation of Fez; Christoforos, a Muslim who converted to Christianity, is executed.

800 Autonomous Aghlabid dynasty (Muslim Crusaders) in Tunisia.

807 Caliph Harun al-Rashid orders the destruction of non-Muslim prayer houses and of the Church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem.

809 Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sardinia, Italy.

813 Christians in Palestine are attacked; many flee the country.

831 Muslim Crusaders capture of Palermo, Italy; raids in Southern Italy.

850 Caliph al-Matawakkil orders the destruction of non-Muslim houses of prayer.

855 Revolt of the Christians of Hims (Syria)

837-901 Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sicily, raid Corsica, Italy, France.

869-883 Revolt of black slaves in Iraq

909 Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate in Tunisia; these Muslim Crusaders occupy Sicily, Sardinia.

928-969 Byzantine military revival, they retake old territories, such as Cyprus (964) and Tarsus (969).

937 The Ikhshid, a particularly harsh Muslim ruler, writes to Emperor Romanus, boasting of his control over the holy places.

937 The Church of the Resurrection (known as Church of Holy Sepulcher in Latin West) is burned down by Muslims; more churches in Jerusalem are attacked .

960 Conversion of Qarakhanid Turks to Islam

966 Anti-Christian riots in Jerusalem

969 Fatimids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Egypt and found Cairo.

c. 970 Seljuks enter conquered Islamic territories from the East.

973 Israel and southern Syria are again conquered by the Fatimids.

1003 First persecutions by al-Hakim; the Church of St. Mark in Fustat, Egypt, is destroyed.

1009 Destruction of the Church of the Resurrection by al-Hakim (see 937)

1012 Beginning of al-Hakim’s oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians

1015 Earthquake in Palestine; the dome of the Dome of the Rock collapses.

1031 Collapse of Umayyid Caliphate and establishment of 15 minor independent dynasties throughout Muslim Andalus

1048 Reconstruction of the Church of the Resurrection completed

1050 Creation of Almoravid (Muslim Crusaders) movement in Mauretania; Almoravids (also known as Murabitun) are coalition of western Saharan Berbers; followers of Islam, focusing on the Quran, the hadith, and Maliki law.

1055 Seljuk Prince Tughrul enters Baghdad, consolidation of the Seljuk Sultanate.

1055 Confiscation of property of Church of the Resurrection

1071 Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk Turks (Muslim Crusaders) defeat Byzantines and occupy much of Anatolia.

1071 Turks (Muslim Crusaders) invade Palestine.

1073 Conquest of Jerusalem by Turks (Muslim Crusaders)

1075 Seljuks (Muslim Crusaders) capture Nicea (Iznik) and make it their capital in Anatolia.

1076 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) conquer western Ghana.

1085 Toledo is taken back by Christian armies.

1086 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) send help to Andalus, Battle of Zallaca.

1090-1091 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) occupy all of Andalus except Saragossa and Balearic Islands.

1094 Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus I asks western Christendom for help against Seljuk invasions of his territory; Seljuks are Muslim Turkish family of eastern origins; see 970.

1095 Pope Urban II preaches first Crusade; they capture Jerusalem in 1099

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History of US imperialism

Posted by picard578 on April 16, 2016

NOTE: Due to the time it took to write this article, some information is outdated, or later found not to be correct. I tried to include fixes wherever possible, but something might have slipped due to the volume of data.

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