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War at Sea – Northern Cog

Posted by picard578 on December 9, 2019

Military Fantasy


After Roman hull-first construction techniques were abandoned and replaced with ribs-first construction, battering ram became useless as a weapon. As a result, naval action came to depend on missile exchange and boarding – only introduction of cannon saved galley as a ship of war in the Mediterranean (see “Galley vs sailing ship” post). In Atlantic, many battles were fought exclusively on cogs (e.g. Battle of Sluys), although war galley survived for purposes of raiding, anti-piracy and coastal patrol. Galley simply is not an effective seagoing weapon system: it has limited radius of action, endurance, and lacks seaworthiness to leave shore. Galley fleets were thus dependant on coastal stations (which is why Venice tried to conquer Croatian shore multiple times, succeeding after Croatian union with Hungary as latter didn’t care much about the sea). They were incapable of blockaing a port unless a friendly army held the shore…

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War at Sea – Galley vs Sailing Ship

Posted by picard578 on December 9, 2019

Military Fantasy

Featured Image By Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom : Home : Info : Pic; alternate version: Web Gallery of Art:   Image  Info about artwork, Public Domain, Link


Most of fantasy does
not consider naval warfare, and those writers which do have varied
performance in portraying it. In Lord of the Rings, dromund-style
ships are described to be used. While Byzantine dromond would not
have been appropriate for the geography of Middle-Earth – Bay of
Belfalas is not a closed sea in the vein of Mediterranean –
Middle-English “dromund” can denote any large medieval
ship. It is made clear however that these ships are oared, which
means that they are most likely similar to Viking longships (or else
Irish galleys, themselves similar to longships). Fleet of Ar-Pharazon
explicitly has enormous galleys, which would not have been capable of
making a trip from Numenor, either to Middle-Earth…

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Rule The Waves playthrough: Byzantium 4

Posted by picard578 on September 7, 2019

This time, I noticed GGP-1 in US file, and added it to Byzantium. Turns out, this – not RGP-1 – is key to rapid economic growth; I enabled it while leaving GDP values as they were originally. Anyway, I started the game, and started building ships. However, treaty soon hits, forbidding ships larger than 13 200 tons and guns larger than 10 inches. Lucky break for me, seeing how shipbuilding capacities I have are limited anyway, so I focus on building destroyers and cruisers for now. For a time, I have 2 B, 1 CA, 1 CL and 1 DD building, and a dozen submarines. Austria-Hungary apparently takes ubrage at my building, and tensions increase. They reduce soon after, but I still refuse to sell A-H Main Battery Wing Turrets when they ask. After previous batch is finished, it is time for 2xCA, 2xCL and 2xDD.

It is 1906., and an assasination causes war with Austria-Hungary. First battle is two battleships vs two, and I sink an Arpad class battleship while losing two destroyers. Major victory, with 26 000 score differential. Next, I design a battleship – a proper BB – and I also make sure to include every possible weight saving option I have. Turret locations are forward, forward centerline and midships – total of 6 14-in guns, as I cannot have wing turrets of that calibre. Speed is 21 knot, same as original HMS Dreadnought, belt armour is 12 in, deck is 3 in, while turret face is 14 in and roof is 4 in. Total displacement 21 000 tons. 19 destroyers are set to ASW/Coastal patrol. Quick check reveals that the only other nation building a dreadnought is Great Britain, but theirs is 25 700 tons – rather more than historical Dreadnought’s 18 400 tons.

Battle off Crete, enemy force has 2 CA and 2 CL that I am aware of. I set my CA’s on enemy CL’s, and leave battleships to handle enemy CA’s. I sunk a CL, while the second one runs away, saved by the nightfall. End table reveals that I lost one AUX in exchange for two CL’s, with 17 463 VP’s vs Austria’s 3 363. This on strategic level translates to major victory, with me gaining 1 263 VP and Austria 318 VP. Austrian navy declines three battles in a row, but the one they do accept is a major fleet battle with my fleet deploying 5 battleships. I manage to cross their T briefly, but abandon the battle following nightfall. One of my destroyers sink, giving A-H minor victory.

Strategically, France and Russia are also building dreadnoughts by now – Russia is building two, and all four dreadnoughts are larger than my design. Austrian navy again declines three battles in row, giving me 220 (60, 60, 100) victory points for free. In next fought battle, I nearly loose two light cruisers to their own stupidity – how hard can it be to point ship’s prow away from the enemy and run? – but situation is turned around when I run across my own reinforcements, and now Austrians have to bravely run away. Admiral Orders Misunderstood sends two of my destroyers careening away to God-knows-where. Austrians eventually run away with no further damage.

Next battle is 2 CA vs 2 CA, 8 000 ton Macedonia and Dalmatia against Austrian 8 600 ton Leitha class and 7 000 ton Kaiserin und Konegin Maria Theresia class. As before, nightfall allows Austrians to run away. I gain awesome 615 VP to Austrian 226 VP (92 to 48 in strategic map). However, I also gain 230 VP for blockade of the enemy. Another fleet action, this time destroyers. Not very good, as I run afoul a bunch of A-H coastal batteries all sat in the same place and lose two destroyers. AH gains 213 VP, but I gain another 230 VP for blockade.

Next battle is cruiser action, and thanks to Admiral Orders Misunderstood, my fleet disintegrates. Austrians have no such issues, so I pull back and try to hunt down few isolated Austrian ships. Two light cruisers escape, but one is surrounded, immobilized and sunk. Later I corner against Italian shore and sink one of the two escaped cruisers, but second one escapes. I get 28 600 VP versus 1 700 Austrian, which on strategic map gives me 1 932 VP and two prestige versus Austrian 190 VP.

In September 1907, A-H offers me “disputed border areas and some of their colonies”. I accept, but peace negotiations “founder on mutually unacceptable demands”. Following is a cruiser action off Crete, which I mostly avoid – however, despite losing a destroyer to superior enemy force, I still apparently caused enough damage to a cruiser for a minor victory. Gained 442 VP on strategic map to A-H 238 VP, and another 210 for the blockade. I now have two dreadnoughts building to one Austrian, and 8 401 VP to Austrian 1 974. Budget is 255 million to Austrian 225 million.

Next fleet battle is November 1907. It is massive battle, but night falls almost immediately – rendering battleships next to useless, so I pull a withdrawal. Apparently, in a brief engagement my fleet managed to sink A-H destroyer and damage some ships, gaining me 3 490 VP against A-H 903 – 327 to 120 on strategic map, and another 220 VP for blockade. I also opt to put some smaller light cruiser at raider status.

After some more sinkings by raiders and submarines innext two or three turns, peace is concluded with our side gaining “large territories and considerable war reparations”. Of course, A-H has no territories to take.

In April 1909., I had researched triple turrets. Next battleship is a 24 500 ton design, despite my docks being capable of 25 000 tons. It is armed with 9 11 in guns, 18 5 in guns and 16 3 in guns. Speed is 23 knots – an increase over normal speed of 21 knots – belt and turret face armour is 11 in, turret top is 6 in, deck is 4 in and secondaries 5 in. Due to strategic and tactical environment of the Mediterranean, I opted for the turtleback armour scheme.

I decide to send a battleship on a cruise. I gain prestige, and also few nations jump into yellow. Situation soon calms down, but only temporarily. I also realize I have 14 in guns, and so design a 27 000 ton battleship, with 7 14-in guns, 23 knot speed, 13 in belt and turret armour, 6 in turret top and 3 in deck. It requires some innovative thinking to get all of that into 27 000 ton package – e.g. turrets are of 2-3-2 arrangement in L, Q and R positions – but I manage. I also let Italy take control of Mozambique, and place predreadnoughts into reserve to order a new light cruiser.

I am forced to build a battlecruiser, and achieve that by reducing guns to 11 in, belt armour to 11 in, and deck to 2 in. Turret protection stays the same, and I manage to get the speed of 29 knots at long range design – excellent for raiding. New design is Satala-class. Russia apparently assassinates my diplomates, and I have a choice – go to war against Russia, or go to war against Russia and Italy. Naturally, I choose the former.

Compared to Russia, both countries have similar budgets – 445M for Byzantium, 429M for Russia. But Byzantium has 4 dreadnoughts totaling 91 000 tons, and a 24 500 dreadnought two months from completion, compared to 2 dreads totalling 43 400 tons for Russia. Russia does have a battlecruiser of 20 600 tons. 11 Byzantine predreadnoughts displace 156 800 tons total, compared to 147 100 tons for 10 Russian ones. Russia has significant advantage in CA’s – 23 against 14 – and CL’s – 36 against 24. Destroyer numbers are similar, at 68 Byzantine and 57 Russian, but Byzantium has 30 submarines to 16 Russian. I put all CL’s to raid, except few 8 000 ton ones.

Russians sign the peace agreement with no border changes the next turn. I lose 1 prestige due to not having enough battlecruisers building, but on plus side shipyard capacity spontaneously increases by 1 000 tons – twice. Next project: 33 000 ton battlecruiser. Eight 11-in guns in three turrets, 30 knots speed, at displacement of 31 000 tons. Belt armour is 11 in, and deck armour is 2 in, but turret armour is 13 in front and 6 in roof. Another is 35 000 ton battlecruiser with 9 11-in guns and much better armour, but costing only 500 000 more per month.

Next design is 36 000 ton battleship. Nine 14-in guns, 12 5-in guns in double turrets, 16 3-in guns and 6 torpedo tubes. Belt armour 14 in, deck armour 6 in, 14 in turret face, 6 in turret top and 5 in secondaries turns out too much; instead, I reduce secondaries to 2 in and belt armour to 13 in. Total displacement in the end is 35 851 t – 35 582 t after I reduce base displacement gradually to 35 600 t.

Now I have 7 BB and 3 BC to A-H 5 and 3, and so I finally retire remaining predreadnoughts. I also redesign Gratianos class (previously described) as a battlecruiser, by reducing main guns to 11 in and deleting centerline turret, thus increasing speed to 30 knots (compared to Gratianos’ 23 knots). I also produce some minesweepers. Next month (it is 1917), I scrap some 20 obsolete destroyers – and even so I still have more than anyone else except UK.

Quadruple mounts are now available, and it is time for new battleship. I take Gratianos, equip it with 8 14 in guns in quadruple turrets, and increase belt armour to 14 in. Increase in displacement to 38 000 tons allows speed to increase to 27 knots. Armour scheme is 14 in belt, 6 in deck, 3 in conning tower, 14 in turret, 6 in turret roof and 2 in secondary turrets. Reduction in conning tower armour to 3 in allows for 12 5-in secondaries and 18 4-in tertiary guns.

Tension with A-H is almost to war, and so I take a look at the inventory. Battleships are 8 in service and 3 building vs 6 in service and no building. BC are 4/0 vs 4/3, CA are 8/0 and 1/0, CL are 28/0 and 16/2, DD are 48/2 and 27/3, MS are 3/3 and 15/6, and submarines are 49/0 and 26/3.

War breaks out, and it is battlecruiser action. At night. This repeats itself – apparently the game likes to cheat. The only good thing is that I have no more battlecruisers left. The war does not go well, and I decide to never build any battlecruisers again.

Later, I manage to nab Tunisia, but doing so brings me to the brink of war with Italy and Russia both. Which is what happens. First engagement is with Italy – bombardment of land target. Along the way I nab an MS, and also manage to destroy the target, but I miss on sinking a CL that was in the area. I get 313 VP and Italy 100.

I design a new 46 000 ton battleship, and next task is sinking 2 TR’s with two antique 22-knot light cruisers. Enemy has 2 CA’s, 2 BC’s and half a dozen CL’s, so mission fails with loss of my geriartric cruisers. Next mission also confirms the Random Number God hates me, and I have to bravely run away. I decide to accept peace offer, losing two prestige, but less than if I had continued to fight. I get to keep Tunisia, giving me a foothold in Western Mediterranean, so there is that. Wartime building programme continues despite the deficit, so I soon receive a BB and a CL. In fact, my current budget is only 1,5 million less than that of Great Britain – 430 million vs 431 million.

A ship runs aground, and I make a demand for release, raising tensions again. This immediately gets me additional funding, which at 465 million is now the highest of all powers – British is only 433 million. Even so, my fleet is still among smaller in terms of capital ships – only 11 battleships, where even Russia has 6 battleships and 8 battlecruisers. My average battleship is on the larger side, with total tonnage of 442 000 tons, giving me good ahead in tonnage – Russia has 442 000 tons, Spain 284 600, while more powerful than me are Austria-Hungary with 494 600 tons, Italy with 460 700 tons, France with 577 400 tons and UK with 1 093 100 tons. New battleship arrives next turn, raising tonnage to 486 000 tons.

And the game hits me with a naval treaty. I really should get smart and avoid agreeing to any such treaties, no matter what – this is probably fifth time game had done that just as I started major rearmament. So I order a bunch of submarines and light cruisers. Each of these cruisers has 32 18-in torpedo tubes, and so can – in right conditions – murder a battleship. What I build next is an armoured cruiser with six 10-in guns, six torpedo tubes, 10 in turret and 9,5 in belt armour. Deck armour is 2 in. With additional funding given due to threat of Austria-Hungary, I immediately order two.

Soon I am at war with Austria-Hungary. First battle involves three of my battleships against six Austrian battleships and two battlecruisers. Arkadios is soon reduced to 20 knots, and Diokletianos A’ Prokahontas is immobilized. I manage to sink Radetzky class battleship, and soon receive three battleships of reinforcements under AI control, but Diokletianos A’ Prokahontas sinks. Turns out I managed to sink three A-H battleships for the loss of two of my own, so I get 316K VP’s to A-H 265K. On strategic map, it is 18K vs 15K. I order a battleship and two destroyers in addition to ships already building.

In next battle two of my light cruisers run into a battleship and a battlecruiser – at night, so no chance of evasion. Having no torpedoes, they are sunk without causing any damage. Next battle deploys three of my battleships. Two A-H light cruisers run away, but I soon run into five A-H battleships. I turn towards the enemy and manage to kinda-sorta cross their T from behind for a brief time. Austrian BB Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand class blows up due to Turret W flash fire, but Iulianos Apostatos is hit by a torpedo and loses steering. It recovers, and I send my fleet steaming south at 10 knots to limit flooding. At any rate it is a major victory – A-H had lost two battleships (second likely due to flooding) and a DD, while I had lost no ships sunk, although 1 BB was heavily damaged. I get 132k points vs Austrian 43,7k, which on strategic map translates to two prestige and 7 912 VP for me, and 2 832 VP for Austrians. I now lead 27 446 versus 19 480 VP, and also designate that battle as memorable – though I am not sure what that does. A-H is now blockaded, and I gain 240 VP for blockade of the enemy. I also set all my 13 non-torpedo-tube CL’s to raider status. A-H now has 3 BB and 8 BC to 10 my BB, but I have 398 000 tons of capital ships to A-H 355 500 tons.

Next battle sees only two light cruisers deployed. I run across a DD and three MS, but run across two A-H CL and three DD. CL Nasar manages to torpedo A-H CL, and Austrians decide to retreat. I opt for the same, as we are too close to Kotor (A-H naval base) for comfort (why the f**k game uses Italian names for Croatian cities, I do not know). I get 18 640 vs 7 767 VP. Now I have 28 968 VP to A-H 20 155. On Basileus’ inqury I reply with “Navy can fight on if needed”, and a compromise peace is concluded with no changes in borders. My budget is still ahead of Great Britain’s, though only by 10 million or so. I have to stop GB from gaining foothold in Albania, which raises tensions with them.

I design a 48 000 ton battleship Zenos A’. Speed is still 27 knots – standard I chose for my battleline – and armament is eight 16-in guns in two turrets. It also has secondary armament of 12 5-in guns, but tertiary armament is increased to 20 4-in guns. Ship also receives eight torpedo tubes in two swivel mounts. Belt armour is standard 16 in with 6 in deck, but turret armour is increased to 17 in face and 7,5 in top – which had lead to reduction of tertiary armament from 24 to 20 guns. Fire control is also improved over previous class, to Advanced Director. I cannot build it yet, but with increased budget due to threat from Great Britain, I accelerate construction of a previous class. After cruisers are finished, I place both battleships on accelerated construction. Emperor screws me over by taking 2 million per month for a new yacht, but I only have 22 prestige now, and with submarines commisioned the next month, my whole 2,5 million deficit is erased.

Even with additional funding however my budget seriously lags behind Great Britain – 441 vs 671 million. I place both battleships and a torpedo light cruiser I’m building on accelerated construction, and order four destroyers which places me into 1,8 million deficit. On inquiry, I point out that we are not ready for war with Great Britain – prestige loss, but budget goes up, which lets me order additional two submarines. Great Britain takes over Borneo (it is 1932 now). I have to sacrifice prestige to avoid war with Great Britain and strenghten the navy.

And in no time flat, and for no reason at all, tension with Britain goes through the roof and we are at war. First is a destroyer action, in which only British success is ramming one of my destroyers. Apparently, sinking 3 DD and 1 MS for 1 DD lost constitutes a major victory – although strategic screen recognizes it as minor. I am almost immediately blockaded, and what follows is another destroyer action, which I win.

In next battle, my fleet deploys full 13 battleships. Not long after the battle begins, Britain loses CA Empress of India to A Turret flash fire. Battlelines engage soon after, and British BB Formidable is hit by a torpedo launched by one of my battleships. British 37 000 ton Resolution-class and 31 000 ton Formidable-class are quickly immobilized, but my BB Iustinianos A’ blows up due to turret hit – despite having 6 in turret roof (which is standard on all my battleships). Battleships on both sides get quite a few torpedo hits, and battle disintegrates. In the end I lost 6 battleships for 3 British, out of 13 battleships on my side and 14 battleships plus 2 battlecruisers on British side. I have to figure out how to fix turret fire problem. I get 33 734 VP, and British get 39 876 VP. For whatever reason, however, I am no longer blockaded. I send my 13 old light cruisers raiding – new ones I need for their torpedo tubes. In March 1934., after a war loan by Parliament and some raiding, I have 35 294 VP and Britain has 42 313 VP.

I take peace terms, but my prestige is only 12 now, and I get sacked.

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Rule the Waves playthrough: Byzantium 3

Posted by picard578 on September 7, 2019

OK, I forgot to start writing this from the beginning, but first few decades I manage to avoid any major wars so nothing to write about. Also note, I believe that this playthrough is done in a mod where I modded Byzantium to have increased economic growth rate, but no other advantages.

At any rate, there is no war for a long time – I managet it to avoid through diplomacy while somehow keeping 20 prestige. At this point, I have 7 battleships and 4 battlecruisers, but one of battleships is a 28 000 ton piece o’ junk. I scrapped it just while writing this, so I have 2 x 41 000 ton battleships (1920 and 1922), 2 x 40 300 ton battleships (same as earlier, but with some weight saiving advantages; launched in 1923 and 1924), and 2 x 47 000 ton battleships (both in 1925). 41 000 tonners have speed of only 24 knots, while both later classes can push it up to 27 knots. I also have four ancient battlecruisers in 30 000 ton, 25 knot class. I have to replace them as soon as possible, likely with new battleships. Two 49 000 ton, 26 knot battleships are being built, and I have designed 27-knot version of the same which will be updated as technology advances. Other than that, I got rid of armoured cruisers which had been around since 1899, and have 14 light cruisers, 56 destroyers – most of them obsolete – and 100 submarines, four times as many as anyone else.

And it is 1925 and the “game is over”. I decide to play on. Parliament cuts the budget severely despite France being in orange and Austria and Italy in yellow, but I have enough funds saved up to finish the ships I am building despite being 3,4 million in red each month. Italy proposes budget cuts, just as Parliament authorizes additional funding, but with France in orange I dare not accept. Italians sulk, but are still yellow. A-H does something stupid and we go to orange with them as well, but Italy to brown, and France dances between yellow and orange for no discernible reason.

At any rate, I have 8 battleships with 3 building. Only Italy and France have fewer, but in terms of tonnage I lead Austria-Hungary as well – their 9 battleships mass 293 000 tons, while my 8 mass 354 000 tons. Battlecruisers however close the gap – I only have a few obsolete ones. Disarmament conference brings no results other than reducing my budget, and A-H gets mad for a US spy being in my territory. And now we are at war.

First battle puts my two battlecruisers against two Austrian ones. Almost immediately, Austrian Siebenburgen-class BC blows up due to turret penetration while my BC Dara II is hit by a torpedo, and Ad Decimum is also ambushed by destroyers while setting fire to Voralberg class battlecruiser. Soon my battleships arrive with escorts and Austrians retreat, but Ad Decimum still sinks. I have lost two BC’s, Austrians two BC’s as well, but I get 221k VP’s to A-H’s 134k (13k vs 8k post-battle). And Basileus is still upset.

I put 45 obsolete underweight destroyers on ASW/CP. Next battle again involves two of my battlecruisers – at this point I can only conclude that the game is cheating. Luckily Battle Division 8 with three battleships is in support. We run into Austrian Kartnen-class BC and no-ID BB. Both my BC’s are torpedoed but luckily neither sink, and battleship division manages to damage an Austrian BC off-screen. I get 80 VP’s from my submarines.

Next battle I have 2 BB and 2 BC – game really likely placing my obsolete, dwarvish BC-s in harm’s way. To add insult to injury, my BB-s are actually faster than BC-s. Along the way to bombardment target, my fleet nabs quite a few TR-s and MS-s. But I cannot reach bombardment target since it is within exclusion zone of the base. Four MS and a TR sank give me enough points for a marginal victory. At this point, I set my BC-s and 4 700 ton CL-s to task of raiding.

Next fleet battle is massive, with eight battleships on my side. I immediately run into three Austrian BC-s. Austrian ships realize what they are up against and try to escape, but a Kartnen class is immobilized almost immediately. Not long after, Voralberg class is destroyed by turret flash fire, immediately followed by another Kartnen class; but torpedo hits from DD attacks reduce my battleline to 17 knots. Turns out entire enemy battlefleet is out in force, and BB Konstantinos Megas eats a few torpedoes from Austrian destroyers. Konstantinos B and Basiliskos both get hit by torpedoes as well – how the hell is AI sinking any of my submarines while apparently sparing none of destroyers for ASW duties? BB Leon B is hit by a torpedo – I guess torpedo tubes on battleships can be useful, so I add broadside swivel mounts to my next battleship class.

And then I’m sacked.

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Rule The Waves playthrough: Byzantium 2

Posted by picard578 on September 7, 2019

This time I opted for a manual build of a legacy fleet. 5 B, 5 CA, 5 CL and a bunch of destroyers. First order of business is to increase dockyard capacity. Austria-Hungary offers a treaty and I naturally accept. I also start spying on Great Britain – there is no tension between us, and hopefully they will have some useful tech. When it comes to research, I raise budget to 10%, and place Armour development, Subdivision and damage control, Ship design and Fleet tactics to High priority.

Tension with Italy is 5 and with France is 4, likely due to treaty with A-H. From A-H I order a battleship with two 10-in gun turrets, but 16 in belt armour, 6,5 in deck armour, 16 in turret face and 9 in turret top. Industrial production soars, but Emperor orders me to build a bunch of cruisers, so I am running a significant deficit. High command gets displeased when I put cruisers at hold, despite having not the money to build them.

I also design new battleship Bosphorus – 3×2 10 in centerline turrets, 24 5 in secondaries, 19 knot speed, 12 in belt armour, 7 in deck armour, 14 in turret face, 8 in turret roof, 2 in secondaries. In 1906., arrangement with Austria-Hungary gets an extension. Strategos is being an idiot as usual, and makes a statement about Great Britain – luckily my tension with them is 0, so I don’t care.

I get tech for three centerline turrets, and finally get a dreadnought battleship building. Nothing special – 22 000 tons, 19 knots, 3 x 2 13 in main battery, 14 in turret face, 8 in turret top, 12 in belt, 4 in deck. Soon Britain sells me tech for triple turrets, and I research tech for four centerline turrets, but for now I cannot utilize these advacements. In 1911., tension with Austria-Hungary goes to yellow and I get bigger budget. Same year I have to apologize to bloody Great Britain for one of my ships opening fire on a fishing boat.

New Exarch-class battleship is 31 000 tons and 3 x 3 13 in an all-forward main battery. Tension with A-H rises to 10 after a submarine torpedoes my ship. I immediately start construction seeing how everybody else has more battleships than me. British government however buys a bunch of tech, and hawk party raises my budget.

CA Boukellarion is 10 000 tons, 10 x 8 in guns, 23 knots, 6 in belt armour and 2 in deck armour.

By August 1915., A-H and Spain are both in yellow – tension of 9 and 7, respectively. I also acquire through sale above water tubes on CL, and immediately design a CL with 8 double torpedo mounts – Myrmidon class. My Exarch class battleship is finally finished, and new Basileus class is 31 000 tons, 3×3 13 in all-forward main battery, 10 x 5 in in single turrets, 13 in belt, 4 in deck, 14 in turret face, 8 in turret top, and 24 knot speed. To reduce deficit while building it, I scrap another Constantinople class predreadnought. I also did not mention that my dock size is now 41 000 tons, but such a monster would be too expensive. June 1916., and my fleet is still dominated by predreadnoughts. I also have to manage building 21 submarines alongside it, so I build coastals.

New battleship Nikephoros is 37 800 tons with 9 15-in guns, but I cannot build it yet. Italy meanwhile takes Tunisia. Basileus is also being an idiot again, but I agree with him – having A-H in yellow helps the budget. Treaty with Russia pushes both A-H and Italy into yellow sphere. New destoyer is 1500 tons, 34 knots, 1 5-in guns and 4 triple torpedo mounts. At the same time, another gaffe puts me in yellow with Austria-Hungary, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom. Not that bad, but risky.

And game seems to be doing its best to increase tension. Strategos wants additional 3 battleships, despite neither money nor international situation being available for that. One piece of good news: report arrives that “our shipbuilding industry has developed considerably and is now on par with other nations”. Industry may have, but budget did not: I am now tied with Spain for the last place.

Austria-Hungary, Italy and Spain are in yellow. This helped budget a bit, which is 325 million compared to 301 million of Spain. I placed four old predreadnoughts into reserve after asking Spain to do the same. Soon dreadnought Nikephoros II is commisioned, and it turns out it can reach 25 knot speed despite being designed for 24 knots. Overall, I now have fewest dreadnoughts, but more cruisers, destroyers and submarines than anyone else – 61 000 tons of CA compared to 51 800 for GB, 192 000 tons of CL compared to 132 000 tons for GB, and 62 700 tons of DD compared to 52 000 tons for France. I am however thinking of retiring some obsolete ships. Italy goes into orange as soon as my new battleship is commissioned.

New CA Olympos is the first oil-firing ship I built – I forgot I have access to oil. At 14 000 tons, it has 12 x 8 in guns, 6 in turret face, 3 in turret top, 6 in belt, 2 in deck armour. Speed is 29 knots. Now that I do remember that, I decided to redesign Nikephoros with oil firing. New battleship Thalassion is 35 700 tons, 24 knot speed, 15 in belt armour, 4 in deck, 16 in turret face, 8 in turret top, and 2 in secondaries – same as Nikephoros, but with 1 inch more turret face armour. Even so, it is 2 100 tons lighter and 3 200 000 cheaper. At the same time I scrap 22 000 dreadnought Symbalises – thing would be fodder against any serious battleship out there, and with Praetor due in 3 months, I can afford to do that. It is March 1924 now.

What I cannot afford is idiot generals asking for more cruisers than budget can manage. I am not Great Britain, for Deus’ sake! Meanwhile, Spain and Austria-Hungary have apparently decided that minesweepers will win the war. And now in 1925., game pushes me to war with Spain, and immediately sets a battlecruiser against my armoured cruiser. Results are, should I say, predictable.

Spanish navy decides to come out in force, but then declines battle despite having 10 battleships to my 7. First battle is battleship action, and Spanish fleet manages to cross my T due to me being focused on battlecruisers. Battleship Valentinian is lost immediately to turret penetration, as is Paleologos – and I cannot remember what turret roof thickness I used on them, or even when I built them. For all I know, they could even have been designs ordered from Great Britain – which would explain whole “ship blowing up” part. Great. Nikephoros II, apparently a newer design, manages to meanwhile survive the attentions of the entire Spanish battle line for some minutes. Overall I lost 5 battleships, sinking only two Spanish battlecruisers. But statistics also reveal that Spanish had 10 BB and 7 BC against my own 7 BB – never good odds. So instead of risking another major battle, I set the entire fleet to raid. Between that and my submarine fleet, Spain immediately experiences shortages – but so does Byzantium.

Of course, then game chooses to force an “unexpected battle”. Glorious victory of sinking 1 MS and 4 DD somehow raises hopes of the nation. But with Spain having budget almost 100 million larger than my own, Cyprus gets invaded by Spain with no issue. I cannot avoid battle forever either, and computer immediately sets my armoured cruisers against Spanish battlecruisers.

I manage to secure peace at expense of two points, and focus on rebuilding battlefleet. New 52 000-ton Autokrator battleship – first of that displacement – has 12 15-in guns in all-forward quadruple turrets, 16 5-in guns, 6 3-in guns, speed of 23 knots, 16 in belt armour, 6 in deck armour, 4,5 in conning tower, 18 in turret face, 8 in turret top, 1,5 in secondary turrets. Battlecruiser Pyr Thalassion has 8 15-in guns in all-forward quadruple turrets, 16 5-in guns, 6 3-in guns, speed of 32 knots, 13 in belt armour, 5 in deck armour, 4,5 in conning tower, 15 in turret face, 6 in turret top, 1,5 in secondary turrets.

Belisarius is a 15-in battleship. It is 52 000 tons in displacement, with 8 15-in guns (2×4), 16 5-in guns (8×2), 8 3-in guns, speed of 27 knots, 17 in belt armour, 7 in deck armour, 5 in conning tower, 18 in turret face, 8 in turret top and 1,5 in secondary turrets. Increased speed and armour are both facilitated by reducing main armament to 8 15-in guns in two quadruple turrets. Originally guns were to be 16-in, but 15-in are of quality 1 while 16 are quality 0, and thus not worth increased weight. Heraclius is the slower and less armoured version of the same, with 12 15-in guns (3×4), 16 5-in guns, 21 knot speed, 16 in belt armour, 6 in deck armour, 2,5 in conning tower, 18 in turret face, 8 in turret top and 1,5 in secondary turrets. Nike has 8 16-in guns (2×4) of quality 1, 16 5-in guns, speed of 27 knots, 17 in belt armour, 6,5 in deck armour, 2 in conning tower, 18 in turret face, 8 in turret top, 1,5 in secondary battery. All have torpedo protection of 4.

Several random events later, I am at war against Russia and Spain both. I lose CA to turret flash fire. Next scenario is also the kind of bullshit scenarios I have come to hate: two CL against two enemy BC. Next thing I learn is that my CL apparently cannot shoot shit: eight torpedo launchers, three tubes per launcher, and they miss CA from point-blank range. That is what happens when you forget to invest in night fighting training, I guess. Next game, I swear you will see torpedo battleships. I’m not kidding. At any rate I plead peace. And the Emperor again requires four battleships to be built, as if we are bloody Great Britain or US, and is displeased because I do not shit battleships. Apparently in this game Byzantium has all the “intelligence” of 1941. Japan.

And now I have alliance with Russia and war with Spain. I sink two destroyers with no losses – it is a destroyer engagement – but afterwards I lose a destroyer to mine ex machina. In next battle however I at least have a battleship and so manage to destroy a bombardment target. On return, my battleship Heraclius runs into Spanish battlecruiser and battleship. Almost immediately Spanish Viczaya class battlecruiser blows up due to turret flash fire. And then Spanish teleport 4 battleships and 3 battlecruisers and catch Heraclius, which eventually sinks.

Next battle I have a total of 5 battleships. Should be enough, unless Spanish got battleship cloning facility in addition to teleportation device. And turns out, they may not have gotten that, but nightfall happens almost immediately. And since I didn’t have destroyers in my fleet, battleship gets torpedoed. Still, for whatever reason, I had caused enough damage to Spanish fleet – one BC sunk, two heavily damaged – that battle counts as victory. Stat screen shows that I had 7 battleships in the battle – but I never saw two of those – while Spanish had 3 battleships and 5 battlecruisers. And I am now left with 4 battleships in active service, while Spanish have 4 battleships and 3 battlecruisers (total force is 9 battleships for Byzantium, 4 battleships and 7 battlecruisers for Spain).

Next battle I have 3 battleships again, plus a DD and a CL. Turns out, I did not have enough destroyers because of idiot Emperor’s obsession with battleships and submarines – almost all destroyers are on ASW duty. Which is interesing, seeing how Spain does have destroyers, despite having less submarines and less destroyers than I do. Three battleships lost in exchange for 1 battleship and 1 battlecruiser. Not bad, seeing how Spain again had massive numerical superiority, but not good either. BTW, you know you’re f***ed when bloody Spain has 100 million larger budget than you do.

Somehow, Army manages to take Cyprus back from Spain (lost in the previous war). Then game glitches, with entire Spanish fleet parked there and not moving, and I decide to start a new game.

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Rule The Waves playthrough: Byzantium 1

Posted by picard578 on September 7, 2019

So I decided to play Byzantine Empire – the original mod this time, after playing around with my own up until now.

And I am almost immediately at war with Italy. I have no clue what happened – maybe just the God of War hit the God of Diplomacy over the head again. Anyway, there is a war, and the first battle. Overall the forces seem to be similar, maybe Italians have slight advantage, but that may or may not matter. The most influential commander on the field this early in the game is the dreaded Admiral Orders Misunderstood – ships of both sides run across the battlefield like headless chicken, and merely a minute into the combat all semblance of order is lost. Battleship Bosphorus decides it has had enough of a madness and prompty sinks, how and why I do not know.

Some semblance of order is recovered soon after in both fleets, only for Admiral Misunderstood to act again and send my destroyer division running full sprint towards Italian battle line. They soon recover, and in the meantime battleship Strategos at the head of my battle line is in close contact with an Italia-class battleship. Which somehow ends up south of my battle line, while rest of the Italian navy is to the north of it. My Battle Division 4 takes a brief trip south on the command of Admiral Misunderstood, and soon does Destroyer Division 5, while DD7 is busy getting itself smashed against Italian battle line.

Night falls, and that is it for the battle, except for Italia-class battleship which is still being chased by Strategos. Italia catches fire but it is soon extinguished, while rest of my battleships go off chasing after Misunderstood-knows-what. Soon the entire Italian fleet appears from the North from dark, while my battleships decide to head South. Strategos slugs it off against two Italian battleships before I call it back eastwards – better not to tango with destroyers in the night. And that is that for the battle, though Strategos has problems with flooding so I reduce its speed to 4 knots.

Second battle is cruiser action with two cruisers, and task to sink two ships. And AI being a cheating bastard it is, my two armoured cruisers run across two Italian counterparts which significantly outrange them. I decide to bravely run away, but my luck holds – soon I come across the second TR, which, having sunk one already, fulfills my battle requirement. Overall battle is my victory, though minor.

Third battle puts two of my light cruisers against two Italian armoured cruisers. In a convoy defense scenario. So I opt to run away North, and luckily cruisers chase. Until one of my destroyers decides to act stupid and runs South, past Italian armoured cruisers and straight back towards the convoy I am supposed to protect. Luckily Italian cruisers apparently have a dose of stupid as well, and cannot decide which part of fleet to chase – so they chase neither. Time runs out, and it is my (marginal) victory.

Army takes my resources to go on the offensive, and Italian Navy refuses three battles in a row, giving me 185 or so VP’s for free. In third battle, it is two of my armoured cruisers against two Italian ones. Two Italian cruisers run away – straight to Italian battle fleet of two armoured cruisers, two light cruisers, and a battleship. Time for me to bravely run away, but with cruisers only able to haul at 20 knots, that is a tall order. At any rate, Italian fleet can also sail at 20 knots tops, but soon my ships have to clean grates while Italian ships start getting engine breakdowns. I go for Corinth, allowing Italian fleet to catch up a bit as my ships change course from S to ENE, but not enough to get into firing range. Good decision too as stokers are getting exhausted, but soon night falls and I get away by fortune of Italian ships losing sight. Apparently I caused 199 damage to enemy ships, yet Italy gets marginal victory because I didn’t sink merchants.

Next battle is at night, and cheating AI places my entire battleline at night, smack against enemy fleet of destroyers. I somehow survive that, and at morning my CA locates enemy fleet. Which it is smack in the middle of. I turn battlefleet south, and B Constans rams Italian destroyer. Destroyer sinks, and Constans is down to 4 knots. Apparently ramming attacks are order of the day, and my DD rams enemy CL. Which sinks. Constans locates enemy fleet again – it got speed back up – and possibly the world’s slowest chase commences as two geriatric battlefleets pound each other into retirement home. Italian fleet slips away again, but I nab a couple of destroyers which apparently are damaged enough to not be able to get away from an antique battleship. And since it is night, I sink them by placing said battleship literally prow-to-stern to each of destroyers and then waiting half an hour for gunners of small-calibre guns to nail them. I think the battle is over, when two Italia-class battleship stumble across the rear of my fleet. These two get away, when a repeat performance is done by a group of three. Of those, I manage to herd one away. Constans gets hit into engine room, but manages to keep up with the battleship. Italia-class nearly runs away a few times, and eventually manages to do so – probably thanks to that engine room hit, which makes Constans wobble every now and then. On the way back north, I stumble across a few groups of Italian ships, and sink a destroyer. Overall, I lost a CL and a DD in exchange for a B, a CL and 9 DD. 51505 VP versus 13103 for Italy. Despite Italy having a battleship more. With 3 000 VP gained, now I am in lead against Italy.

Next battle consists entirely of my CA’s failling to catch and sink Italian CL before latter gets rescued by Italian CA’s. Then Italy gains 1000 Vps due to Army failure, and now I lead by only 800 VP.

Next battle, I have 5 battleships. Task: sink 2 TR’s. Nice to know we are being ambitious here. Of course, it is night again, and I stumble across half of the Italian battle fleet. Strategos gets hit by a torpedo almost immediately, of course. Battle degenerates into melee, Italia-class catches fire almost immediately, Admiral Orders Misunderstood intervenes on Italian behalf – again – although Constantinople manages to keep up with Italia-class battleship – which intermittently catches and puts out a fire – until dawn. Second Italia-class intervenes, and this time Constantinople catches fire. Italians retreat while Constantinople sinks. Italians come back as soon as they realize they are not being chased, but by that time Augustus, which had also gotten crippled, is repaired and limping away. And then sinks.

Italy is now in lead, and France is also pissed at me, I don’t know why. In the end, I capitulate to avoid going to war against Italy and France both. This calms things down a bit, but I do take a risk of occupying Albania. Naturally, France is again pissed, but luckily no war. Then I reject occupying Angola, to avoid pissing off France further, but also because I am genuinely not interested in anything outside Mediterranean basin at this point. I also help Russia root out some rebels. France takes over Sumatra, but I don’t care about that.

Italy sells me Main Battery Wing Turrets tech, and I can suddenly build dreadnoughts. France, bloody hypocrites, also take over Panama. I suck up to Strategos – who doesn’t like me because I do not follow his insane foreign policy recommendations (blowing up a French battleship? Really?) – by offering to man a yacht. I do develop a BB, finally, and immediately build two.

And I’m sacked. Apparently, not insane enough. Time for round two.

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USA wants to arm Croatia

Posted by picard578 on August 11, 2019

Croatia has to receive new fighter aircraft by 2023., as by then MiG-21s now in service will not be usable any longer. As process will last for at least two years, possibly longer, it is high time for it to start, yet it did not.

Heritage Foundation indicated that USA wants to arm Croatia with new fighter aircraft. This may have to do with the fact that Russia is arming Serbia, whose expansionist and imperialist tendencies are going as strong as ever. USA and NATO already participate in a series of military exercises in Croatia, and Croatia may also receive Bradley IFVs.

Tendencies in BiH also show that a new conflict may be brewing. Bosniaks are attempting to force unitaristic and centralistic policies and are engaging in political violence over Croatians, denying them political and social rights. Serbs are reconstituting and expanding armaments industry.

Currently, due to incapability of Croatian Air Force, Hungarian Air Force is responsible for night protection of Zagreb airspace.

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Blessing and curse of US geostrategic position

Posted by picard578 on July 21, 2019

United States have a very secure geostrategic position. Unlike Russia, China, India and Brazil – all of which border a significant number of potentially hostile countries (especially the first three) – United States border only Canada and Mexico, former an ally, latter a partner. Two oceans separate US from nearest potentially hostile power, while also providing profitable trade routes.

However, this has also been a curse as well. United States have mostly been a world for itself, largely unaffected by the events abroad. Both world wars had left mainland US untouched, and casualties suffered by US had been proportionately minor. While this on its face is a good thing, it also means that United States have developed a peculiar disconnect with reality. US policymakers and political commentators are largely incapable of understanding European concerns with such topics such as immigration, islamization and Islam. This is paralleled in Western Europe’s inability to understand Polish and Hungarian stance of Islam – largely because Poland and Hungary had shielded Western Europe from onslaught of Islam through 14th to 17th centuries.

Yet this inability to understand such issues can easily prove to be a curse. While military conquest and peaceful immigration are, on the face, extremely different, end results are not necessarily so. Indonesia, currently largest Muslim country, was not conquered militarily. Initial spread of Islam was gradual and peaceful, largely through trade links. But as Muslim powers got established in the area – e.g. Malacca Sultanate – in 15th century, spread of Islam got more aggressive. Utilizing coercion, by 16th century Indonesia was largely Muslim. This will likely happen in Europe as well, yet American startegists – such as Zbigniew Brzezinski – do not understand Islam. Likely cause of this is precisely American historic isolation and self-sufficiency, themselves a consequence of advantageous geostrategic position, geography and abundance of both space and natural resources.

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1400 years of islamic aggression

Posted by picard578 on July 6, 2019

While modern Marxist Western thought tends to dismiss all non-material motivations for development and war, religion included, looking at the sources it becomes impossible to separate Islam from Arab expansion. Sayyid Qutb, a Muslim polemicist, stated that the mission of Islam is to correct injustices in the world – injustice being whatever is not islamic in nature. Religion is not the only motive for Muslim expansion, but it is the primary one. It is impossible that such conquest could have happened under Christianity, or any other religion. But holy war is a Muslim’s duty, and conversion must happen – by peace or by force. Much like modern-day Marxism/Progressivism, Islam is a “universalizing” ideology, attempting to operate on a global scale, and eventually encompass the whole of humanity – the entre world is divided into Dar al-Islam (House of Islam) and Dar al-Harb (House of War) – if you are not Muslim or under Muslim rule, Islam is automatically at war against you. No permanent peace is possible with non-Muslims, unless latter submit to Muslim rule. Non-muslims are given the options to convert, flee, pay a punishing tax, or die; no peaceful coexistence is possible. Qur’an instructs that the entire world is to be converted. Islam relies heavily – and is built upon – taqqiya, or the duty of deceiving unbelievers for the sake of faith. Lying to believers is despicable; lying to unbelievers is virtuous. It is that way that a “religion of peace” is responsible for majority of terror attacks in the world. While Shi’a communities have – mostly – used it to protect themselves from persecution at the hands of their Sunni rivals, Sunni Muslims had deployed taqqiya as an active deceit, for purpose of aggresion against unbelievers. Today it is also used by Muslims living in countries where Christian infidels are a majority. War is deceit, as many had acknowledged. Difference is that Islam defines Muslims as being always at war against non-Muslims; therefore, Muslims perpetually lie. In Islam, Muslims can only agree to a maximum 10-year truce with infidels; sole function of any truce is to buy time for Muslims to regroup before renewing the offensive. And any oath or treaty can be abriged or nullified if it is advantageous to Islam. In Islam, there is no time of war and time of peace; there is only time of open war and time of war through deceit.

Islamic aggression begins with Muhammad himself. Muhammad fled to Medina after Meccans got fed up with his aggression and usage of his followers to beat up political opponents. At Medina, Muhammad murdered poets who opposed him. Once in power, he attacked Mecca – without any provocation. Between 622. and 630., Muhammad organized 64 raids against Meccan caravans; of these, he personally led 27. Muhammad himself sent a letter to Khaibar Jews, saying that they will be safe if they embrace Islam. Meccans got fed up with Muhammad’s raids, and attacked him in Medina. This led to Battle of Badr in 624.; Meccans were defeated and killed to a man, Muhammad having ordered no prisoners taken. In 625., Quraish – frustrated by continuing Muslim attacks on caravans – reorganized their forces and attacked Medina once again. This time lust for plunder led to defeat of Muhammadian forces, causing Muhammad to institute a death penalty for breaking discipline. The following year Quaraish built an alliance of different Arab tribes to fight the Muslim gangsters in Medina. Muhammad dug a trench around the city at the advice of Salman, who had come to Muhammad to seek help in his revenge on Persians who had banished him. This forced Quaraish to place a siege, which Muhammad used to contact separate members of the alliance and promise them peace if they embraced Islam – but without telling them that withdrawing from Islam meant death. Many accepted, as Quaraish did not make accepting Islam a punishable offence like Muhammad did leaving Islam. Thus, under the pretext of embracing Islam, members of the confederacy withdrew one by one. Once Quraish lifted the siege, Muhammad ordered murder of poets in the city that had mocked him. (A Muslim’s loyalty is only to his co-religionists; this makes islamic democracy an oxymoron, as democracy relies on nationalism and nation-state, whether civic or ethnic).

After victory at the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad turned his attention to the Roman and Persian Empires, whose wealth he desired. He sent out an invitation to the emperors in which he asked them to find refuge in Islam. “Embrace Islam and you will be safe” – an invitation, a threat and an ultimatum rolled into one. Both emperors refused the blackmail, not realizing the kind of threat Islam represented. After the ultimatum was rejected, and the Governor of Syria attacked one of emissaries for insulting Emperor Heraclius, Muhammad declared that it was the duty of Muslims to attack the Roman Empire. In 629 AD, Muslims attacked the Roman Empire, spurred also into action by the fact that Quraish had started to make overtures to the Persians and Romans. An army 3.000 strong marched out under leadership of Muhammad’s personal slave Zaid. Romans massacred the invasion force at Battle of Mu’tah; Zaid was killed, as was Jaffar. The remainder fled. But Romans, despite the victory and overtures by the Quraish, failed to destroy Muhammad and his followers. Hundreds of millions would die because of that mistake.

After losing that battle, Muhammad attacked the Quraish’ Jewish allies, specifically Banu Quraizah tribe. All Quraizah males were killed, while women and children were sold into slavery. In 628 AD Muhammad and thousand followers marched to Mecca by an indirect route, thus avoiding detection. Once there, Quraish and Muslims negotiated a peace treaty. The terms of the treaty included a clause: if any Muslim from the Quraish clan renounced Islam and returned to Mecca, Muhammad would not hold any grudge against him and would not ask for his return. If anyone from the Quraish embraced Islam and went to Medina, Muhammad would immediately return him to the Quraish at Mecca. This allowed Muslim spies to infiltrate Mecca without any problems, while no Quraish spies would infiltrate Medina. Once a large number of Muslims had infiltrated Mecca, in AD 630. Muhammad abrogated the treaty and attacked Mecca. Before that, he made a large number of alliances, prompting the Quraish to do the same in self-defense. After Meccan-allied tribe of Banu Bakr was attacked by Muslim Banu Khuza’ah, it launched a retaliatory strike, which was enough for Muhammad to declare war. He now had enough strength and besieged the city, forcing Meccan leader Abu Sufyan to convert to Islam by holding his daughter captive as part of his harem. After that, Meccans – as blood relatives of Muhammad – achieved preferred status within Islam. This forced conversion created Sunnis, as Meccans unconditionally surrendered. From this event comes name Islam as well (“Al Silm”, surrender). Muhammad demolished all idols in Mecca, and proclaimed that Allah has no form so that Muslims could not be demoralized by enemy destroying image of Allah.

After conquest of Mecca, Muhammad set his sight on the town of Taif, which had earlier rejected Islam. The defenders were outmaneuvered and defeated at the pass of Hunain, after Muslim champion cheated in a duel by striking the camel (rules allowed only the rider, not the camel, to be struck). Demoralized, army of Taif retreated to the fort. Muslims meanwhile destroyed oases around Taif and forcibly converted allies of Taif to Islam, forcing Taif to sue for peace and convert to Islam as well.

Between 630. and Muhammad’s death in 632., Muslims – driven by religion with ingrained lust for booty and slaves – had conquered the bulk of western Arabia and southern Palestine in a series of holy wars. Conquest was put on hold from 632. to 634. as many tribes rebelled, seeing an opportunity after Muhammad’s death, but resumed once rebellion was crushed in 634. Now, this was not the first holy war in history. Khusrou’s invasion of Roman Empire which just preceded islamic expansion was a holy war, and Heraclius’ response had significant elements of holy war as well, and could indeed be called such. In fact, ancient Israelite invasion of Canaan was likely the earliest recorded holy war in history, assuming religious justification was not merely added post factum. Thus, Muslims did not invent the concept of the holy war. They did, however, make it a standard rather than an exception. In Islam, anything done in fight against non-Muslims (or Muslim heretics) is holy. After Muhammad’s death, new Caliph – Abu Bakr – continued Muhammad’s “holy work” and launched Islam into 1400 years of imperialism, colonialism and genocide. A stretch of land invaded by Muslims at one point or another stretches from Western Europe (Spain, France) to Phillipines, from Poland and Ukraine to Nigeria and from central Asia to New Guinea. Out of 28 battles fought by Muhammad, 27 were offensive-aggressive.

The conquest of Arab pennisula was followed by the invasion of Eastern Roman Empire and Persia. Muslims had changed the rules of war: theirs was probably the first religiously-driven conquest in history (previous religious wars ended in status quo being restored). Those conquered by Islam could only avoid slavery by becoming Muslims. In 634. AD, Muslims launched an unprovoked attack on Persia. They started harrassing civilians and attacking border towns. In response, Persians sent a reconnaissance force. Arabs withdrew to desert, giving their camels an advantage over Persian horse cavalry. The reconnaissance force was defeated and withdrew to join up with Persian army at Kasker. Muslims followed him, surprising and defeating the Persian force at Kaskar. Persians consequently withdrew beyond Euphrates. At the Battle of the Bridge, Persians used elephants to defeat Muslim army, but did not pursue Muslims into their own territory, nor slaughter them like Muslims did their enemies, as Persians – like Romans – subscribed to unwritten rules of civilized warfare. Neither exterminated each others’ armies, tormented nor forcibly converted the civilian population.

Roman Empire was attacked at the same time. According to islamic historians, Monophysites and Jews initially welcomed Muslims. But this was not true. Because it was so quick, conquest of Palestine and Egypt is often described as “bloodless” and “peaceful”. While indeed quick – and often helped by local Monophysites who were persecuted by the Orthodox elite in Constantinople – it was far from bloodless. Damascus was conquered in 635. After several defeats – including the Battle of Ajnadyn – Romans attempted to stop the Muslim advance at Battle of Yarmouk in 636. However, Roman multiethnic and multiconfessional force lacked cohesiveness, while Islamic army was fully Arab and Muslim and thus had substantial edge in cohesion and morale. Despite 2:1 numerical disadvantage, Muslims won after three days of battle. After Battle of Yarmouk, Muslims conquered rest of Palestine and started a five-month siege of Jerusalem, which was captured in 638. After Jerusalem was captured there was no slaughter of inhabitants, but non-Muslims were made to pay tribute to colonialist Muslims. City itself was sacked for three days, and over 300 churches and monasteries destroyed. Further wars provided the Muslim Empire with a stream of slaves. The conquest of Christian North Africa went easily enough until Berbers were encountered, bringing the conquests to stop between Tripoli and Carthage for quarter a century. After their resistence was broken, Muslims enacted massacres of Berber populations, ethnically cleansing the coast. While few coastal Berber enclaves remained, most of the populace – then and today – was Arab, and Berbers were pushed into the Sahara desert. Persian Empire was also defeated in 636., in Battle of al-Quadisiyyah. Following this battle, Muslims conquered Iran, with conquest lasting until 650. Jerusalem was conquered in 638.

Jerusalem itself prospered for the next 100 years under Umayyad rulers. However, under Abbasids it began to decline, starting at 725. Causes of decline were numerous – breaking away of provinces, growth of extremist Muslim sects – but the most important was new decision that Muslims had to convert Christians, Jews and other pagans to Islam (note: Muhammad changed his talk about “people of the Book” after they refused to accept his teachings, denouncing them as pagans and heretics; anything good and tolerant he wrote about them is from before that time). Abbasids drained wealth from Jerusalem to Baghdad for the benefit of the caliphs, and just like any colonial possession in such a situation, Jerusalem declined economically. The language of the government became Arabic, and forcible conversion to Islam became the Muslim policy. Christian and Jewish populace of Jerusalem suffered significantly afterwards. Early in eighth century, 60 Christian pilgrims were crucified. In 772, caliph al-Mansur ordered the hands of Christians and Jews in Jerusalem be stamped with a distinctive symbol. People who converted from Islam to Christianity were beheaded, as was the case with Christian monk in 789; at the same time, Betlehem monastery of Saint Theodosius was plundered and many monks massacred. By the ninth century, persecution was so widespread and intensive that many Christians began fleeing to Roman Empire. In 923., a large number of churches was destroyed, and in 937. Palm Sunday rampage, Muslims destroyed Church of Calvary and the Church of Resurrection. Muslims destroyed the countryside of Israel in 970-983 and 1024-1077; Christian churches were wholesale destroyed on several occasions, and in 1020s the Caliph of Cairo completely destroyed Jerusalem. Muslim laws were enforced, mosques built on top of Christian churches and church height was limited. Pilgrims from Europe were attacked and robbed, as were Christian processions. Part of the reason may have been that new Muslims rulers felt more secure after so long stretch of islamic rule, but vast distances of the Empire also led to establishment of independent rulers and instability of Caliphates.

Major problem in Jerusalem was that Christians and their churches were significantly wealthier than the Muslims, since with Charlemagne in early 800s Europe adapted “foreign aid” programme for the churches located at holy places – particularly Jerusalem where Christian churches outshone Muslim rivals. Many were run by religious orders from Rome or Constantinople. Sometimes churches were victims of internal Muslim warfare, especially when Christian and Muslim rulers were in an alliance.

Conquest continued beyond Palestine after 638. Between 638. and 650., Iran was conquered; in same timeframe happened the conquest of Egypt (639-642), Syria and Palestine (638-641) and North Africa (643-707). In 644 Caliph Umar is assassinated, and replaced by Uthman. Uthman, between 644 and 650, conquered Cyprus, Tripoli, Iran, Afghanistan and Sind. In 656. Uthman was assassinated, and succeeded by Ali ibn Abi Talib. Muhammad’s wife Aisha attempted to avenge Uthman’s assassination, rebelling against Ali for not doing so, but was defeated. Ali himself was murdered in 661., and Muawiyyah I. established Umayyad dynasty. Constantinople was beseiged in 673., lasting to 678. In 680., Muhammad’s grandson Hussein and his supporters were massacred in Karbala, Iraq. In 705., Umayyad rule is restored by Abd al-Malik.

Islam was also spreading in the East, and it did not stop at conquering Persia. Muhammed bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Indus valley in 712. Sindh became the easternmost state of the Umayyad Caliphate. In the West, Spain was conquered by Muslims in 711-713, imposing the Kingdom of Andalus. Their advance is only halted by Franks at the Battle of Poitiers in 732. Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba was set up in Spain in 756. In the East Mediterranean, Romans halted their advance in 678. and 717. sieges of Constantinople, and the entire Roman Empire was quickly turned into a militarized garrison state to resist islamic expansion. Constantinople would remain the focal point of Muslim offensives in the West until its fall in 1453. After the defeat in the 717. siege, Caliph Omar projected his wrath on the Christians under his authority, forcing many to convert to Islam and killing those who refused. In 863., victory at Lalakaon marked the end of large-scale raids of Roman territory. But Muslim world was still strenghtened by its wider-ranging access to slave labour in Africa and Asia, while Roman Empire stood essentially alone. Crete became the centre of Mediterranean slave trade, an “honour” which it retained until Roman Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas retook the island in 956.


It was Muslim conquest that brought about the Dark Ages. Up until the 7th century and Islamic invasions, the Roman culture of Antiquity continued to prosper in Spain and France (actually Visigoth and Frankish kingdoms). While Anglo-Saxon barbarians largely erased Roman culture in the Great Britain – only vestiges of it were preserved in Ireland – and Italy regressed into a dark age due to ransacking by Justinian’s armies, Visigoths and Franks both continued a supremely advanced civilizations, their culture being a direct continuation of Roman culture. Visigothic Kingdom maintained aquaducts and bathing houses (latter oftentimes incorrectly attributed to Muslim invaders). They also constructed new buildings, often influenced by the architecture and art of surviving Eastern Roman Empire. Kingdom also produced significant intellectuals such as Isidore of Seville, Eugenius I of Toledo and Theodulf of Orleans. Visigothic nobles were taught writing, reading, medicine, law and philosophy. In France, Merovingian dynasty continued late Roman system of administration. It was Islam’s blockade of Mediterranean that impoverished the cities, led to loss of knowledge and education, and caused many cities to be abandoned and rest significantly reduced. Muslim blockade of trade as well as continual raids and piracy – as commanded by Islam against infidels – had served to transform entire Mediterranean – from Spain and France to remains Roman Empire – into a rural, largely illiterate society. Muslim conquest led to almost complete disappearance of Christian communities in Middle East and Northern Africa. Islam commands a continual war against nonbelievers, and in that spirit Muslims mounted constant raids against southern shores of Europe, taking plunder and slaves. Many ports on the northern shores of Mediterranean became desolute, large areas of coast becoming completely uninhabited. Those who did remain adopted a culture in which paranoid suspicion of outside world, violence and vendetta were endemic.

Despite popular misconception, Roman Empire itself did not fare any better than Western Europe. Its long tradition allowed it to maintain basics of an organized state, without slipping into feudalism, but even those were shadows of what the Empire had been before the invasion. The entire Roman Empire had been turned into a garrison state. Loss of supply of papyrus from Egypt had devastated Roman learned class, and between the loss of administration and constant attacks, many cities were abandoned. Same poverty that ruled in the West was also in evidence in Rome. Bronze coinage – the proof positive of developed commerce – disappeared in seventh century, and did not reappear in quantity until late tenth century. In Rome as in West after Muslim attacks, one finds barter economy, and largely illiterate populace. As As al-Mundhir described it, “Rich cities are few in their kingdom and country, despite its situation, size, and the antiquity of their rule. This is because most of it consists of mountains, castles, fortresses, cave dwellings and villages dug out of the rock or buried under the earth.”.

But that culture was also terminated in Egypt and Syria due to new faith’s utter contempt for it. Caliphal government in Egypt immediately established a commission whose purpose was to seek out and plunder pharaohnic age tombs. A century after Muslim conquest, nobody knew who had built the Great Pyramid. Immediately prior to Muslim invasion, libraries and academies of Egypt, Syria and Babylonia were packed with works of classical authors. Yet these works and most of their knowledge disappear immediately after Muslim conquests. Islam had destroyed the Classical civilization.


In Spain, Muslims were initially tolerant of Christianity. This changed as their rule solidified. In 9th century Cordoba, a group of Christians initiated a nonviolent campaign as a response to outrageous human rights violations by Muslims. They were all slaughtered. St. Eulogious was likewise killed by Muslims for defending the martyrs. However, despite wide-scale conversion efforts via violence and jizya, only very poor were swayed – by an effective argument of children being sold into sexual slavery if the tax wasn’t paid, a tax they couldn’t afford. Nonviolent resistance by Spanish was met by Muslim reprisals, such as mentioned pogrom. In 853 a nonviolent resistance in Cordoba was supplemented by violent uprising in Toledo. Emir initially threatened to massacre all Christian men and sell Christian women into prostitution. He eventually backed down from the threat, but he still purged all Christians from the government, destroyed churches, monasteries and schools, and launched a massive campaign of forced conversions.

The intention of taking the jizya is not to approve the disbelief of non-Moslems in Islam, but rather to spare their lives and to give them some time; in hope that during it; they might stop to reflect on the virtues of Islam and its compelling arguments and consequently converting from disbelief to belief. That’s why it’s important to pay the jizya with humiliation and servility, because naturally, any sensible person cannot stand humiliation and servility. So if the disbeliever is given some time watching the pride of Islam and hearing evidences of its authenticity, then apparently this might carry him to convert to Islam and that’s the main rationale behind the enactment of the jizya. (Tafsir al-Kabir. Koran 9:29)

Later during 10th century, Christians were being executed in Andalusia for refusing to convert to Islam. In 1013., Jews were expelled from Cordova by the Umayyad Caliphate.


In 807., Caliph Harun al-Rashid ordered the destruction of non-Muslim prayer houses and the Church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem. In 809., Sardinia was conquered by Aghlabids. In 813., Christians in Palestine were attacked, and many fled the country. In 831., Muslim jihadis captured Palermo in Italy. In 850., Caliph al-Matawakkil orders the destruction of non-Muslim houses of prayer. Between 837. and 901., Aghlabids conquer Sicily and raid Corsica, Italy and France.

In 855., Christians of Syria revolted. This revolt was followed in 869. by revolt of black slaves in Iraq, which was crushed in 883.

In 903., the Arabs sacked the second-largest city of Roman Empire, Thessalonica, enslaving 30 000 Christians. In 909., Fatimid Caliphate rises in Tunisia, and conquers Sicily and Sardinia. Roman Empire experiences military revival in 928.-969., retaking old territories such as Cyprus and Tarsus. Even so, in 931. Muslim raiding parties reached as deep as Ankuriya (Ankara) and took thousands of Christians captive. Ribats, quasi-monastic establishments – part monasteries, part fortresses – flourished as basis from which Ghazis joined the raids against Christian “polytheists”. Muslims burn down the Church of the Resurrection (The Church of the Holy Sceptre) in Jerusalem in 937., and more churches are attacked. In 966., Quarakhanid Turks convert to Islam.

An entire corpus of Muslim writers preached committment to jihad so as to stop Christian counterattacks. Ibn Nubata used rhetoric not dissimilar to that of Pope Urban, over a century later: “Do you think that He will forsake you whilst you are assisting Him, or do you imagine that He will desert you whilst you are steadfast in His path? Certainly not! . . . So put on — may God have mercy on you — for the Jihad the coat of mail of the faithful and equip yourselves with the armor of those who trust [in God].”

In 966., anti-Christian riots happen in Jerusalem. In 969. Fatimids conquer Egypt, while in 970. Seljuks enter Islamic territories from the East. By 972., Fatamids had conquered North Africa. In 973., Israel and southern Syria are again conquered by Fatimids. In 1003., al-Hakim begins his persecutions of Christians, destroying the Church of st. Mark in Fustat, Egypt. In 1009., Church of Resurrection is again destroyed by al-Hakim, and he in 1012. declares oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians, including destruction of all churches and temples. Umayyad Calphate collapses in 1031., and reconstruction of the Church of Resurrection is completed in 1048.


Between 1001. and 1026., islamic prince Mahmud of Ghazni launched a series of 17 campaigns into Northern India. By 1020s, his empire included Indus Valley, Afghanistan and Persia, echoing Muhammed bin Quasim who created an islamic empire in roughly the same area in 710s.


The Crusades, so reviled by the Left, were late and anemic effort at defense against islamic aggression. They were an imitation of jihad, spurred by fear and necessity of a losing war. Neither were they without immediate provocation, launched only once Muhammedians had settled in their newly conquered lands. First call for a Crusade was made in 846 AD, when an Arab expedition to Sicily sailed up the Tiber and sacked Rome. By 11th century, islamic jihad had succeeded in conquering more than half of what used to be Christian land – Christian communities in North Africa, Middle East and Western Asia had been subjugated by that time. The expansion was finally stopped after the Battle of Politiers and failed attempts at conquering Constantinople. But this did not mean the end of the threat. In the West, Abd-el Rahman III and Al-Mansur advanced through northern Spain in the latter years of the tenth century, and raids into southern France continued well into eleventh century. Leon, Barcelona and Santiago de Compostela were burned by Al-Mansur. It was these actions which initiated Reconquista, a Christian response to renewed threat of Islam in the West. Mediterranean was again a battlefield as Christians fought to hold back the renewed offensive by Islam. In the East, the Roman Empire was still at disadvantage against jihadis. While there was a revival of the Empire under Macedonian dynasty, it did not survive Basil II’s death. Seljuk raids into Anatolia began in 1020s, devastating Armenia. In the twenty years immediately preceeding the First Crusade, the Empire had lost nearly whole of Anatolia – an area larger than France, and on doorstep of Europe. In 1050. Seljuk leader Togrul Beg killed at least 130.000 Christians in a Holy War. In 1055., Seljuk Prince Tughrul entered Baghdad; in the same year, Seljuks confiscated the property of the Church of Resurrection. In 1064. an old Armenian capital of Ani was destroyed by Alp Arslan, who had unified Seljuks in 1063. and quickly gained charming nickname of “a drinker of blood” through his cruelty. Over 30 000 people were enslaved, and the equal number massacred, so that – in words of Armenian historian Matthew of Edessa – it was impossible to find a street not covered by corpses. Upon hearing the news, Caliph of Baghdad issued a rescript praising and blessing Alp Arslan. From 1065. onwards Edessa was assaulted yearly, in 1066. Seljuks occupied the pass of Amanus Mountains, and in spring of 1067. Cappadocian metropolis of Caesarea was sacked. That winter Roman armies were defeated at Melitene and Sebastea, which sealed Seljuk control of Armenia. Raids penetrated to Neoceasarea and Amorioum in 1068., Iconium in 1069. and Chonae near Aegean coast in 1070.

By 1070., Seljuks were in control of all of Armenia and were threatening the conquest of Anatolia, which had been stripped of its thematic forces following the ascension of incompetent Constantine VIII to the throne. Emperor Romanos Diogenes attempted to liberate Armenia, but was defeated at Manzikert in 1071. and taken prisoner. Alp Arslan was killed a year later, and his son Malek Shah completed the conquest of Asia Minor, up to the western shores – aided by Roman civil war in which various pretenders tried to take the throne. Continual raids allowed Seljuks to expel, enslave or impoverish region’s Christian inhabitants. A fortress of Nicaea, just across Constantinople, was taken by the Seljuks in 1075. In mere 20 years, Roman Empire – the preeminent Christian state of the era – had lost an area larger than France. Anatolia, one of earliest hotbeds of Christianity, fell under Muslim rule – once thriving region having been reduced to a wasteland and pastureland for still-nomadic Turks. After these defeats, Romans appealed to Pope for help.

It is this renewal of islamic expansion that brought about the Crusades. As noted, after loss of Anatolia – the traditional recruiting ground of the Empire – Emperor Alexius Comnenus made a call for help. While Romans had hoped for mercenaries to help them liberate Anatolia, Pope saw an opportunity to unite Christians and stop them from fighting each other instead of a far more dangerous enemy. As such, he made a call for uniting Christians in defense against Muslim aggression. This was successful in part, and the spirit of the Crusades enabled Europe to survive by uniting it in crucial battles of Lepanto and Vienna. Crusades themselves were also partly successful. It should also be noted that, with few one-off exceptions (Constantine, Heraclius), Christianity did not have a concept of holy war as a doctrine until first contacts with Islam.

All and all, it makes as much sense claiming that Crusades were aggressors as it does to claim Allied soldiers who went to France in 1944. were, or that Allied war effort as such was evil because Dresden, Tokyo and other cities with no military targets in them were destroyed in obvious campaign of terror bombing (i.e. war crime). Compared to Jihad, or to wars started by atheists in 18th century and later, Crusades were measured, moral, rational and reasonable answer to Islamic invasion and colonization. Crusades were indeed not clean. Crusader conquest of Jerusalem was a barbaric thing – but while the West and Westerners have apologized for Crusades (and many are taking pilgrimages even today as symbol of penance), no such apology ever came from Muslim side for jihad, nor for Muslim imperialism, geographically largest in the world’s history. By the time Crusades had started in AD 1099, Muslim armies had conquered, slaughtered, enslaved, raped and tortured their way through nearly two-thirds of the Christian world. Christians were forced to pay the exertionist tax, forced to convert to the peaceful genocidal religion, summarily executed for no other fault than being Christian. In 11th century, Christians living in the Fatamid Caliphate were subject to persecution during the reign of al-Hakim, who ordered them to wear identifying black turbans and a large cross in public, as well as ordering the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. When Seljuks conquered Middle East, one of their goals was greater persecution of Christians. Pilgrims were subject to harrassment and violence – in 1065., a group of 12.000 German pilgrims led by Bishop Gunther of Bamberg in 1065. was massacred by the Seljuks on Good Friday. Pilgrims were attacked first by emir of Tripoli but were saved by a storm, and were attacked on Good Friday by Bedouins.

Toledo was liberated by Christians in 1085., but in 1086. Almoravids sent help to Kingdom of Andalus. By 1091., Muslims had occupied all of Andalus except for Saragossa and Balearic Islands, sending refugees fleeing all over France. In 1094., the ambassadors of the Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus appeared before the Pope Urban II. at the Council of Piacenza to request help against Muslim Seljuk Turks. While the Emperor had hoped merely for mercenaries, Pope had seen an opportunity to unite Western Europe for a useful purpose, and declared a Crusade to liberate Christ’s grave in 1095.


Crusades had little impact on Muslim anti-Christian sentiments. Muslims themselves remained as ignorant of the Christian world after the Crusades as they were before them. They knew next to nothing of Europe’s geography and culture; it held no interest to Muslims beyond being a frontier area against which they waged war. Both Muslim attacks and Christian counterattacks degenerated into extremely dirty wars. They also helped establish popular anti-Semitism as well as slave trade within Western Christianity.

Muslim aggression continued during and after the Crusades. (…)


Spanish Inquisition was not a reflection of Christian barbarism, but rather a desperate measure of a Christian society forced to defend itself against hundreds of thousands of Muslims who had claimed to have converted to Christianity, but were practicing taqiyya and living as moles trying to subvert the Christian nation back to Islam.


On May 29, 1453. Muslims conquered Constantinople, a city that had by that time thrived for over a thousand yeary (330. – 1453.), and a then-center of two thousand years old Roman civilization. Many civilians were massacred, raped or taken into captivity, and city itself pillaged. Around 30 000 civilians were enslaved or forcibly deported, out of pre-siege population of no more than 50 000. People who had taken shelter within Hagia Sophia – those unable to assist in defence of the city – were divided among captors, and those not enslaved were slaughtered. Sultan Mahmud, wanting to preserve his future capital, was forced to order a stop to the pillage on the first day, contrary to contemporary laws of war which allowed three days for pillage of a captured city.

With fall of the Constantinople, four out of five centres of Christianity – Constantinople, Alexandria, Jerusalem and Antiochia – were conquered, leaving only Rome free.


Conquest of Constantinople and Middle Asia led to Europeans seeking other routes to China. Made more aggressive and expansive by its struggle with Islam, Christian Europe colonized the Western Hemisphere and sidestepped Dar al-Islam as middleman in trade with Asia. But this also led to Reformation and the rise of secularization. But Columbus’ trip – which had jumped off European colonization – was not only about seeking trade routes to China. Military alliance against Islam was also sought. And extreme cruelty that Spaniards displayed in the New World were merely habits gained through long association with Islam. This includes the parasitic habits and nature of the Arabs and nomad Africans, which caused Spaniards to merely plunder gold from the New World, instead of – as English and French did – establishing trade colonies. Spanish habits in the New World – putting villages to fire and sword, razing crops, devastating whole districts to bring the enemy to terms, enslaving people – were nothing more than what they themselves had been subjected to at the hands of Muslims.


Wherever it establishes itself, Islam destroys or defaces monuments that represented the previous, destroyed culture and replaces them with its own – Afghanistan used to be Buddhist, Anatolia Christian, Pakistan Hindu, but there are no intact monuments remaining from these cultures. The same thing happened in Egypt. The Great Pyramid of Giza used to be covered by a smooth, beautifully polished layer of white stone. This limestone was similar to marble but superior in hardness and durability. The 144.000 casting stones were so brilliant they could be seen from the mountains of Israel, hundreds of miles away. But when an earthquake in 13th century loosened some of the casting stones, Arabs saw their opportunity. Limestone layer was removed and stone used for mosques and palaces.


In conquered areas, non-Muslims were segregated and discriminated against. Islamic law was introduced as senior law and Arabic language as official language, and local language frequently disappeared. Society was divided into two basic classes – islamic conquerors who did not pay taxes, and conquered natives who had to pay heavy tax. There are many examples of discriminatory legal practices: in various cases, Christians and Jews were forbidden from bearing arms, riding horses, building new houses and proselytizing. They had to bow to their Muslim masters when paying taxes and to live under Koranic law. Eventually, even non-Arab Muslim inhabitants became a second class – still above non-Muslims, but below Arab masters, in a classic colonialist practice. Over time, various practices led to disappearance of once-thriving Christian communities in North Africa, Middle East and Western Asia. Muslims also captured and/or imported a mass of black slaves, centuries before the European transatlantic slave trade; but these were all castrated, which is why there are no or very few black people in Arab countries today. Intermittent tolerance of other “peoples of the Book” was tolerance of the victors. It always disappeared as soon as the tide turned against Islam. The pressures of jihad led to forced conversions, pogroms and other brutalities.


The expenses of defending Europe forced the Church to raise money in various ways. This included selling the indulgences, which naturally was exploited by the less ethical members of the clergy. Various popes opposed it on ideological basis, and attempts were made to rein it in (such as in 1392. by Pope Boniface IX), but practicality precluded cessation of practice and it was only Martin Luther – a monk without understanding of greater picture – that decisively opposed it by publishing 95 Theses. This caused a religious schism in the West, and led to the Thirty Years War, one of the most lethal wars in European history. This will not be the last intra-Christian war that the expansion of Islam will ultimately cause.


Muslims had beseiged Vienna in 1529. and 1683. In 1627., Iceland was raided by Muslim corsairs, seizing four hundred captives and selling them in slave markets of Algeirs.


Russian invasion of Crimea under Catherine the Great was a response to centuries of slave raids by the Crimean Khanate, the “white harvest” so common on borders of islamic states wherein Muslims would capture and enslave Christians, especially children. Blond women and boys fetched a premium at the slave markets in the Ottoman Empire. Raids were no less cruel than later Western slaver raids in Africa, but are completely unknown to average college SWJ.


Creation of United States Marine Corps was a response to islamic aggression. Now, USMC are not the first such organization in the US history – that would be the Continental Marines of the US War for Independence. But Continental Marines were disbanded following the end of the war. United States Marine Corps were established 20 years later to counter islamic piracy. The Barbary Coast pirates were following in Muhammad’s footsteps, raiding oceangoing ships, taking slaves, capturing people for ransom and demanding “protection money” from any kafirs that didn’t want to be raided.

Many European countries, as well as United States initially, did the easy thing and paid the protection money. This, however, meant that piracy flourished, as money was used to fund operations against anyone who wasn’t paying. During Jefferson’s time as ambassador to France, he met with an ambassador from Tripoli and asked why Tripoli was doing this; the answer he was given was that it was written in Koran, and that it was Muslim’s “right and duty to make war upon them [non-Muslims] wherever they could be found, and to enslave as many as they could take as prisoners”. Jefferson read the Koran, formed the United States Navy, created the Marine Corps, and sent them to the shores of Tripoli. This was the beginning of the end of the Barbary Coast pirates.


In 1830., Greece regained independence from the Ottomans.


Even in 20th century, islamic imperialism has continued unabated. Ottoman Empire expelled approximately 1.500.000 Greeks from its land and replaced them with Turks. While a logical and reasonable thing to do – Greeks also expelled Turks from Greece, and in the long run it prevented internal conflicts and possible civil war – today it would be called “ethnic cleansing”. What cannot be excused in any possible way is Turkish massacre of 2.000.000 Armenian Christians – which was religiously, not ethnically motivated act. Turkey also occupied and ethnically cleansed northern Cyprus, an act of aggression which cannot be justified by any means. Muslim Northern Sudan enslaved Christian and pagan southern Sudan. Muslim Indonesia likewise occupied non-islamic western New Guinea, East Timor and Celebes, and immediately conducted a campaign of destroying any non-islamic religions. Muslim Iraq has fought wars with surrounding Muslim states for the lack of Christian enemies at hand; Muslim Albania is busy trying to enlarge borders at Macedonia’s expense while Muslim North Nigeria is busy being an aggressor against Christian south. Yet no Muslim country ever sent troops anywhere to protect Christians from persecution, while Christian nations did protect Muslims from persecution (e.g. Bosnia).


From 1902. to 1913., United States fought against Islamic “Moro Warriors” in the Phillippines. These warriors were extremely hard to stop due to a combination of rope armour, drugs and religious insanity. In one instance, a Moro warrior fought on after receiving 14 bullet wounds in five minutes – one of which was to the brain. As a result of these wars, US military introduced high-calibre M1911 pistol.


In Nigeria today, Muslim terror is not limited to classical terror groups such as Boko Haram. While it looks like a problem between herdsmen and farmers, most of herdsmen are Muslims from the north who are taking over the land, coming to settle in the south in order to populate area with Muslims. Herdsmen are being financed from the outside, and have access to sophisticated weaponry. In Thailand, Muslims have embarked on a campaign of violent religious cleansing and genocide against Buddhists despite making up only 4% of the populace. This is not a new phenomenon: modern-day “Arab world”, with sole exception of Arabia itself, was never Arab until Muslims came. But Muslims exterminated native populace. European Union has admitted that islamic terrorism had cost the economy hundreds of billions of Euros. In fact, increased cost of terrorism is directly linked with Muslim immigration. Europol has warned that “Migration flows are relevant to the terrorist threat, with irregular migrant flows having been ‘exploited in order to dispatch terrorist operatives clandestinely to Europe.'”.


Pathos of contemporary Islam is fuelled not by Western imperialism – which was fuelled first by need for defense against Islam, and today by Marxist globalism – but rather by memory of how Islam’s final victory over Christianity for so long remained a real possibility. Further, most of today’s islamic terrorism is home-grown: rather than being more integrated, second-generation Muslim immigrants are far less integrated into their countries than first-generation immigrants.

In Muslim countries, Western analysts have predicted that the Arab Spring will lead to democratization and moderation. Democratization, in a sense, may have happened – but moderation did not. Instead, what happened was the spread of traditional (so-called “extremist”) Islam, leading to unprecendented jihadist mobilization.

In Western societies, Muslim aggression is a function of percentage of population. While this does vary from society to society, below 2% Muslims are well-behaved members of the society. Between 2 and 3 per cent, prosyletization behins among criminals and similar groups. From 5% on, Muslims begin forcing host society to adapt to their demands – such as so-called “halal” food. When they reach 10%, lawlessness and outright terrorism are used as a means of pressure against the host society. Anything that offends Islam results in uprising and threats. After reaching 20% of population, Muslims engage in hair-trigger rioting, Jihadi militia formations, murders and church and synagogue burnings. These are not hard rules, however – France has little less than 10% Muslims, yet it is already experiencing symptoms listed as appearing with 20% of populace. Reason is that behaviour is also determined by the nature of host society. Western European societies and people in them have been conditioned into spineless cowards by decades of liberalism and progressivism. In a free and tolerant society, Muslims will not feel fear, and will start misbehaving much sooner. On the other hand, in a strongly anti-Muslim, self-conscious nation such as China, percentage will have to be much greater before they start misbehaving.

Muslims are regularly ones to initiate hostilities, and when their victims resist, Muslims and their progressive apologists immediately shift the blame to them (as they do with Crusades). Al Jazeera blamed Buddhists for defending themselves from Muslim aggression. And because West refuses to see the danger, Muslim immigrants flooding the West will easily demographically and culturally overwhelm host societies, achieving peacefully what they failed to achieve by sword centuries ago. Muslim “enclaves” or “ghettoes” in Western societies are not a consequence of Western intolerance – they are ribat, frontier posts where war is waged against infidels, one way or another.

Aggression itself is not merely ideological, but biological-psychological as well. Somewhere around 70% of Pakistanis, 25 – 30% of Turks, and 50% of Arabs are inbred. Consequences of inbreeding are lower levels of IQ and higher levels of aggression. At least 55% of Pakistani population in UK is married to a first cousin. As a result, a British Pakistani family is at least 13 times more likely than the general population to have children with recessive genetic disorders. While UK Pakistanis account for 3,4% of all births in Britain, they account for 30% of all British children with disorders that are a result of inbreeding. Overall, around half of Muslims in the world are inbred; so if world becomes Muslim, it will also become mentally retarded, as well as locked in permanent rage. Western airplane instructors have found that Saudis have very limited night vision, as well as dim memories, and have to be constantly reminded the things they had been told days before. Inbreeding has done irreversible damage to Muslim gene pool in terms of sanity, intelligence and health. Inbred babies are 400% more likely to have IQ lower than 70 – which is mental retardation limit (this effect is well known in European royal families, such as Hapsburgs and British royal family, which had been inbreeding for centuries). In Denmark, non-Western immigrants are more than 300 percent more likely to fail the intelligence test required for entrance into the Danish army. Arab world as a whole translates only 330 books per year, 20% of what Greece alone does. In 1200 years of Islam, only 100 000 books had been translated into Arabic – less than Spain translates in a year. Seven out of 10 Turks have never read a book. Only four Muslims had ever won a proper Nobel Prize – additional five had won Nobel Peace Prize. In Denmark, between 51% and 70% of children with special needs have immigrant background, and 64% of schoolchildren with Arabic parents are still illiterate after 10 years in the Danish school system. More than 40% of patients in Denmark’s biggest ward for clinically insane criminals have an immigrant background.

Vuk dlaku mijenja, ali ćud nikada.



A list of major Muslim invasions:


Muhammad conquers Mecca from his base in Medina.


Muhammad dies in Medina. Islam controls the Hijaz.


Muslims conquest of Syria, and the surrounding lands, all Christian – including Palestine and Iraq.


Muslim Crusaders conquer Iraq (some date it in 635 or 636).


Muslim Crusaders conquer and annex Jerusalem, taking it from the Byzantines.

638 – 650

Muslim Crusaders conquer Iran, except along Caspian Sea.

639 – 642

Muslim Crusaders conquer Egypt.


Muslim Crusaders control Syria and Palestine.

643 – 707

Muslim Crusaders conquer North Africa.

644 – 650

Muslim Crusaders conquer Cyprus, Tripoli in North Africa, and establish Islamic rule in Iran, Afghanistan, and Sind.

673 – 678

Arabs besiege Constantinople, capital of Byzantine Empire.


Dome of the Rock is completed in Jerusalem, only six decades after Muhammad’s death.

710 – 713

Muslim Crusaders conquer the lower Indus Valley.

711 – 713

Muslim Crusaders conquer Spain and impose the kingdom of Andalus. The Muslim conquest moves into Europe.


Conquest of Spain complete.


Muslim invasion of France is stopped at the Battle of Poitiers / Battle of Tours. The Franks, under their leader Charles Martel (the grandfather of Charlemagne), defeat the Muslims and turn them back out of France.


Foundation of Baghdad.


Foundation of the Great Mosque of Cordova.


Rise of Idrisid amirs (Muslim Crusaders) in Morocco; Christoforos, a Muslim who converted to Christianity, is executed.


Autonomous Aghlabid dynasty (Muslim Crusaders) in Tunisia


Caliph Harun al—Rashid orders the destruction of non-Muslim prayer houses & of the church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem.


Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sardinia, Italy.


Christians in Palestine are attacked; many flee the country.


Muslim Crusaders capture Palermo, Italy; raids in Southern Italy.

837 – 901

Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sicily, raid Corsica, Italy, France.

869 – 883

Revolt of black slaves in Iraq.


Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate in Tunisia; these Muslim Crusaders occupy Sicily, Sardinia.

928 – 969

Byzantine military revival, they retake old territories, such as Cyprus (964) and Tarsus (969).


The Church of the Resurrection (aka Church of Holy Sepulcher) is burned down by Muslims; more churches in Jerusalem are attacked.


Conversion of Qarakhanid Turks to Islam.


Fatimids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Egypt and found Cairo.


Israel and southern Syria are again conquered by the Fatimids.


First persecutions by al—Hakim; the Church of St. Mark in Fustat, Egypt, is destroyed.


Destruction of the Church of the Resurrection by al—Hakim (see 937).


Beginning of al—Hakim’s oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians.


Creation of Almoravid (Muslim Crusaders) movement in Mauretania; Almoravids (aka Murabitun) are coalition of western Saharan Berbers; followers of Islam, focusing on the Quran, the hadith, and Maliki law.


Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk Turks (Muslim Crusaders) defeat Byzantines and occupy much of Anatolia.


Turks (Muslim Crusaders) invade Palestine.


Conquest of Jerusalem by Turks (Muslim Crusaders).


Seljuks (Muslim Crusaders) capture Nicea (Iznik) and make it their capital in Anatolia.


Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) conquer western Ghana.


Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) send help to Andalus, Battle of Zallaca.

1090 – 1091

Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) occupy all of Andalus except Saragossa and Balearic Islands.

630 Two years before Muhammad’s death of a fever, he launches the Tabuk Crusades, in which he led 30,000 jihadists against the Byzantine Christians. He had heard a report that a huge army had amassed to attack Arabia, but the report turned out to be a false rumor. The Byzantine army never materialized. He turned around and went home, but not before extracting “agreements” from northern tribes. They could enjoy the “privilege” of living under Islamic “protection” (read: not be attacked by Islam), if they paid a tax.

This tax sets the stage for Muhammad’s and the later Caliphs’ policies. If the attacked city or region did not want to convert to Islam, then they paid a jizya tax. If they converted, then they paid a zakat tax. Either way, money flowed back to the Islamic treasury in Arabia or to the local Muslim governor.

632-634 Under the Caliphate of Abu Bakr the Muslim Crusaders reconquer and sometimes conquer for the first time the polytheists of Arabia. These Arab polytheists had to convert to Islam or die. They did not have the choice of remaining in their faith and paying a tax. Islam does not allow for religious freedom.

633 The Muslim Crusaders, led by Khalid al-Walid, a superior but bloodthirsty military commander, whom Muhammad nicknamed the Sword of Allah for his ferocity in battle (Tabari, 8:158 / 1616-17), conquer the city of Ullays along the Euphrates River (in today’s Iraq). Khalid captures and beheads so many that a nearby canal, into which the blood flowed, was called Blood Canal (Tabari 11:24 / 2034-35).

634 At the Battle of Yarmuk in Syria the Muslim Crusaders defeat the Byzantines. Today Osama bin Laden draws inspiration from the defeat, and especially from an anecdote about Khalid al-Walid. In Khalid’s day an unnamed Muslim remarks: “The Romans are so numerous and the Muslims so few.” To this Khalid retorts: “How few are the Romans, and how many the Muslims! Armies become numerous only with victory and few only with defeat, not by the number of men. By God, I would love it . . . if the enemy were twice as many” (Tabari, 11:94 / 2095). Osama bin Laden quotes Khalid and says that his fighters love death more than we in the West love life. This philosophy of death probably comes from a verse like Sura 2:96. Muhammad assesses the Jews: “[Prophet], you are sure to find them [the Jews] clinging to life more eagerly than any other people, even polytheists” (MAS Abdel Haleem, The Qur’an, Oxford UP, 2004; first insertion in brackets is Haleem’s; the second mine).

634-644 The Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab, who is regarded as particularly brutal.

635 Muslim Crusaders besiege and conquer of Damascus.

636 Muslim Crusaders defeat Byzantines decisively at Battle of Yarmuk.

637 Muslim Crusaders conquer Iraq at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah (some date it in 635 or 636).

638 Muslim Crusaders conquer and annex Jerusalem, taking it from the Byzantines.

638-650 Muslim Crusaders conquer Iran, except along Caspian Sea.

639-642 Muslim Crusaders conquer Egypt.

641 Muslim Crusaders control Syria and Palestine.

643-707 Muslim Crusaders conquer North Africa.

644 Caliph Umar is assassinated by a Persian prisoner of war; Uthman ibn Affan is elected third Caliph, who is regarded by many Muslims as gentler than Umar.

644-650 Muslim Crusaders conquer Cyprus, Tripoli in North Africa, and establish Islamic rule in Iran, Afghanistan, and Sind.

656 Caliph Uthman is assassinated by disgruntled Muslim soldiers; Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law and cousin to Muhammad, who married the prophet’s daughter Fatima through his first wife Khadija, is set up as Caliph.

656 Battle of the Camel, in which Aisha, Muhammad’s wife, leads a rebellion against Ali for not avenging Uthman’s assassination. Ali’s partisans win.

657 Battle of Siffin between Ali and Muslim governor of Jerusalem, arbitration goes against Ali

661 Murder of Ali by an extremist; Ali’s supporters acclaim his son Hasan as next Caliph, but he comes to an agreement with Muawiyyah I and retires to Medina.

661-680 the Caliphate of Muawiyyah I. He founds Umayyid dynasty and moves capital from Medina to Damascus

673-678 Arabs besiege Constantinople, capital of Byzantine Empire

680 Massacre of Hussein (Muhammad’s grandson), his family, and his supporters in Karbala, Iraq.

691 Dome of the Rock is completed in Jerusalem, only six decades after Muhammad’s death.

705 Abd al-Malik restores Umayyad rule.

710-713 Muslim Crusaders conquer the lower Indus Valley.

711-713 Muslim Crusaders conquer Spain and impose the kingdom of Andalus. This article recounts how Muslims today still grieve over their expulsion 700 years later. They seem to believe that the land belonged to them in the first place.

719 Cordova, Spain, becomes seat of Arab governorship.

732 The Muslim Crusaders are stopped at the Battle of Poitiers; that is, Franks (France) halt Arab advance.

749 The Abbasids conquer Kufah and overthrow Umayyids.

756 Foundation of Umayyid emirate in Cordova, Spain, setting up an independent kingdom from Abbasids.

762 Foundation of Baghdad

785 Foundation of the Great Mosque of Cordova

789 Rise of Idrisid emirs (Muslim Crusaders) in Morocco; foundation of Fez; Christoforos, a Muslim who converted to Christianity, is executed.

800 Autonomous Aghlabid dynasty (Muslim Crusaders) in Tunisia.

807 Caliph Harun al-Rashid orders the destruction of non-Muslim prayer houses and of the Church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem.

809 Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sardinia, Italy.

813 Christians in Palestine are attacked; many flee the country.

831 Muslim Crusaders capture of Palermo, Italy; raids in Southern Italy.

850 Caliph al-Matawakkil orders the destruction of non-Muslim houses of prayer.

855 Revolt of the Christians of Hims (Syria)

837-901 Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sicily, raid Corsica, Italy, France.

869-883 Revolt of black slaves in Iraq

909 Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate in Tunisia; these Muslim Crusaders occupy Sicily, Sardinia.

928-969 Byzantine military revival, they retake old territories, such as Cyprus (964) and Tarsus (969).

937 The Ikhshid, a particularly harsh Muslim ruler, writes to Emperor Romanus, boasting of his control over the holy places.

937 The Church of the Resurrection (known as Church of Holy Sepulcher in Latin West) is burned down by Muslims; more churches in Jerusalem are attacked .

960 Conversion of Qarakhanid Turks to Islam

966 Anti-Christian riots in Jerusalem

969 Fatimids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Egypt and found Cairo.

c. 970 Seljuks enter conquered Islamic territories from the East.

973 Israel and southern Syria are again conquered by the Fatimids.

1003 First persecutions by al-Hakim; the Church of St. Mark in Fustat, Egypt, is destroyed.

1009 Destruction of the Church of the Resurrection by al-Hakim (see 937)

1012 Beginning of al-Hakim’s oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians

1015 Earthquake in Palestine; the dome of the Dome of the Rock collapses.

1031 Collapse of Umayyid Caliphate and establishment of 15 minor independent dynasties throughout Muslim Andalus

1048 Reconstruction of the Church of the Resurrection completed

1050 Creation of Almoravid (Muslim Crusaders) movement in Mauretania; Almoravids (also known as Murabitun) are coalition of western Saharan Berbers; followers of Islam, focusing on the Quran, the hadith, and Maliki law.

1055 Seljuk Prince Tughrul enters Baghdad, consolidation of the Seljuk Sultanate.

1055 Confiscation of property of Church of the Resurrection

1071 Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk Turks (Muslim Crusaders) defeat Byzantines and occupy much of Anatolia.

1071 Turks (Muslim Crusaders) invade Palestine.

1073 Conquest of Jerusalem by Turks (Muslim Crusaders)

1075 Seljuks (Muslim Crusaders) capture Nicea (Iznik) and make it their capital in Anatolia.

1076 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) conquer western Ghana.

1085 Toledo is taken back by Christian armies.

1086 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) send help to Andalus, Battle of Zallaca.

1090-1091 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) occupy all of Andalus except Saragossa and Balearic Islands.

1094 Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus I asks western Christendom for help against Seljuk invasions of his territory; Seljuks are Muslim Turkish family of eastern origins; see 970.

1095 Pope Urban II preaches first Crusade; they capture Jerusalem in 1099

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A look at Game of Thrones armour

Posted by picard578 on May 9, 2019

This post will look at armour in Game of Thrones TV series.

House Stark

Stark armour is very good. It consists of a mail shirt (hauberk), gambeson or arming doublet, and leather armor tunic which looks like it is capable of receiving metal inserts – in essence, a brigandine armor. This armor is appropriate for a not-so-rich house: mail armour is easy to make, and leather tunic with metal inserts provides protection that is almost as good as lamellar armour but is much simpler to make. Leather, if well-made and treated, may also protect the metal inserts from corrosion, which may be an issue in cold and damp North. Combination of gambeson and leather tunic also means that armor is warm, which makes it good for use in the cold North – although in battle, armour may become too warm. Read the rest of this entry »

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